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Full text of "The poetical elements in the diction and syntax of Tacitus"

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Charles Grenville Cole. 




The Poetical Elements 


in 


the Diction and S^iitax of 




Tacitus. 






THE POETICAL ELEMENTS 

IN THE DICTION AND SYNTAX 

OF TACITUS 

Charles Gren\ulle Cole. 



>'*giii<j6>^- 



(r. E. Steohert & Co. 

New York 

1910. 



•Yco 



THE POETICAL ELEMENTS 

IN THE DICTION AND SYNTAX 

OF TACITUS 

BY 

Charles Grenville Cole, A. B., A. M. 

(Princeton) 

Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements 
for the Degree of 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

in the 
University Faculty of Language and Literature 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 



••► 4- 









1908. 



Contents. 



Pago 

Preface 6 

Bibliography 7 

Introdactiou 9 

Certain laws in the composition of Tacitus' writings. 
Psychic factors. Tacitus' conception of the function of 
history. Poetical tendency in his works. 

Life of Tacitus 10 

How affected by the time in which he hved. Lack of 
freedom of speech. His early style. Necessity of deviation 
from Cicero's style. 

Roman Education 11 

Subjective and objective feeling. No public schools at 
Rome. Earliest training. Elementary Schools. Grammar 
Schools. Introduction of Rhetoric. Poetical works as text 
books. Writing from poetry into prose. 

Recitatio . . . , 14 

Nature of the Recitatio. Organization of the poets' 
gmld. Collegium Poetarum may have suggested the 
recitatio. 

Archaisms and Graecisms 14 

Sallust and Livy Tacitus' chief prose models. The use 
of Greek words and constructions due in part to the study 
of poetry and in part to the times. 

Silver Latinity 15 

Age of Silver Latinity. Language the vehicle of thought. 
Augustus encourages literature. Prose lamentably wanting. 
Analysis of the elements of Silver Latinity. Irresponsible 
Emperors. Language unnatural as outgrowth of unnatural 
thinking. 

The Dialogus 1(> 

Poetical elements. As far as possible messures up to 
Ciceronian standard. Shows the influence instilled within 
Tacitus by the study of the poets. 

1* 



— 4 — 

Page 

Tacitus' Works in General 17 

A. Variety mixed with poetical coloring. Tacitus feels the 
necessity of Euphemism. He displays a fine soul feeling 
and keen sympathy. 

B. Tacitus' Real Debt to Vergil 19 

Laid Vergil deeply under contribution. Made what he 
bon-owed his own. Romans of all ages boiTowed. No 
plagiarism. Roman authors not judged on their own 
merits. 

I. Poetical words first introduced hy him 21 

II. Certain words, hitherto, in sense exclusively poetical 21 

III. Reminiscences 29 

C. Tacitus' probable Debt to Vergil 32 

I. Substantival use of adjectives 32 

II. Neuter adjectives or participles, used substantively, 

found Ln Vergil 33 

IIL Transitive Accusative 33 

iV. Compound verbs used by Tacitus with a simple 

accusative 34 

V. Examples from Vergil 34 

VI. Genitive with Adjectives 35 

VII. Similar Construction in Vergil 36 

VIII. Simple for Compoimd Verbs 36 

IX. Simple for Compoimd Verbs in Vergil 37 

X. Intransitive use of verbs usually transitive .... 38 

XI. Cases occuring in Vergil 38 

XII. Infinitive of Pui-pose 38 

XIII. Some examples from Vergil 39 

XIV. Infinitives with adjectives 40 

XV. Cases to be noted in Vergil 41 

XVI. Reflexive verbs 41 

XVII. Reflexive verbs in Vergil 4] 

XVIII. Greek Accusative 42 

XIX. Vergil uses the Greek Accusative 42 

XX. The Accusative towards which motion takes place . 43 

XXI. Examples from Vergil 43 

XXII. Partitive or Quasi Partitive Genitive 43 

a) After neuter singular adjectives 43 

b) After neuter plural adjectives 44 

XXIII. Partitive or Quasi Partitive in Vergil 45 

a) Adjectives in the singular 45 

b) Adjectives in the plural 45 

XXIV. Dative of Indirect Object with implied local relation 
where the Ablative with a preposition would be 
more usual 45 

XXV. Parallel construction in VergU 45 

XXVI. Dative instead of the Genitive 45 

XXVII. Some Vergilian Passages 46 



— — 

Page 

XXVIII. Dative of agent 46 

XXIX. In VergU 40 

XXX. Dative after Compound Verbs for the Accusative 

with a preposition 47 

XXXI. Common in Vergil 47 

XXXII. Dative of Purpose 47 

XXXIII. Dative of Purpose in Vergil 48 

XXXIV. Local Ablative 48 

XXXV. Similar Construction in Vergil 49 

XXXVI. Ablative of Place ^Vhence (without a preposition) . 49 

XXXVII. Some examples from Vergil . 5U 

XXXVIII. Anastrophe 50 

XXXIX. Anastrophe in VergU 51 

XL. Adjectives for adverbs 52 

XLI. Adjectives for adverbs in Vergil 52 

XLII. Substantives for adjectives 53 

XLIII. From Vergil 53 

XLIV. The use of the preposition ex for adjectives and 

adverbs 53 

XLV. VergU 54 

XL VI. Pare prepositions 55 

LXVII. Qui Eelative where Quis = Quibus 55 

LX^^II. From VergU 56 

XLIX. Quamquam with the Subjunctive 57 

L. Metonymy and abstract for concrete terms .... 58 

LI. Personification 61 

LII. Metaphors 62 



Preface. 

Any work in connection with the writings of Tacitus is 
hard, for, his style is rather concise and abstract and is filled 
with sentiment and fire. Then too as Macaulay says: He car- 
ries his love of effect far beyond the limits of moderation. He 
tells a story finely, but he cannot tell a plain story plainly. 
He stimulates, till stimulants lose their power. 

To accomplish a particular line of research in Tacitus' 
works one must have first the feeling for his style and then 
approach it as a prospector with his tools, seeking only the 
objective precious metal among many precious metals. For 
the arousing of the necessary sentiment I am deeply indebted 
to Dr. E. G. Sihler of New York University. In the bibho- 
graphy I make mention of the prospectors' tools, works which 
indicate many precious metals. My only task then is, as a 
prospector seeking an objective metal, the poetical element in 
Tacitus, to make a judicious selection from all these works in 
connection with the text itself of Tacitus, This is the apology 
for the attempt to add something to that which has already 
been written on Tacitus. 

Orange, N. J., July 10th, 1908. 



Bibliography. 



Grammars. 

Draeger, A. Ueber Syntax und Stil des Tacitus. Leipzig 1882, 
Gantrelle. Grammaire et style de Tacite. 2nd Ed. Paris 1882. 
Sirker, C. Taciteische Formenlehre. Berlin 1871. 

Lexicons. 

Botticher, Guil. Lexicon Taciteum. Berlin 1830. 
Gerber, A. et Greef, A. Lexicon Taciteum. Lipsiae 1877. 
Wolfflin. Philologus XXIV— XX VI I. 

Texts of Tacitus. 

CJomelii Taciti Libri qui supersunt. Rec. Halm. Leipzig 1901. 
Tacitus. Erklart von Nipperdey. Leipzig 1851. 

Furneaux, Henry. Annals of Tacitus. 2nd. Ed. 2 Vols. Oxford 
1906. 

Texts of Yergil. 

Connington revised by Nettleship. London 1881 — 1883. 
Ribeck, 0. Virgilus Opera. Leipzig 1907. 

Texts of Horace. 

Desprez, Ludovicus recog. New York 1820. 
Wickham,E. C. Ed. 2 Vols. Oxford 1893. 

Leverett, F. P. Juvenal. Boston 1834. 
Helvetius, Daniel Crispinus. Ovid. London 1878. 
Bonn ell. Quintilianus Institutuo Oratia. Leipzig 1903. 

Works in General. 

Ciemm, Guil. De breviloquentiae Tacitiae qiribusdam generibus. 
Leipzig 1881. 



Cooper, F. T. Roman Sermo Plebeius. New York 1895. 

Groag, E. Zur Kritik V. Tacitus Quell en id. Historien. Leipzig 

1897. 
Teuftel and Schwabe. History of Roman Literature. London 

1891. 



The excerpts in the body of the thesis have been taken for the 
most part from the Teubner texts. Whenever it has been necessary to 
consult such writers as Seneca, Pliny, Sallust, Livy, and Cicero, the 
Teubner texts have again been laid under contribution. 



Introduction. 



A careful analysis of the works of Tacitus will show that 
he followed certain laws in the composition of his writings; 
and it may be observed further that his conformity to these 
laws makes possible a statement of his style and syntax under 
three general heads, — Variety, Brevity, and Poetical Coloring. 
In a study of the poetical elements in the works of Tacitus it 
is necessary to understand that anyone or all these elements 
may appear. 

Close observational reading of Tacitus' several writings 
will reveal the psychic factors which called for such a catego- 
rical division of these elements and for a strict conformity to 
the laws underlying them. These psychic factors found their 
generating force and their developing power in the hfe of Ta- 
citus, whose life was mightily affected by the ever changing 
scenes of corruption, vice and murder, and many other repul- 
sive moral and physical acts. So many times did he have to 
narrate heinous crimes and flagrant offenses, and so much of 
the same nature and kind, that he had to have recourse to 
the most forceful way of presenting them. 

A study of Tacitus' conception of the function of history 
will disclose clearly, that his true purpose in writing history 
was a moral one, for, he himself says: Quod praecipuum 
munus, annalium reor , ne virtutis sileantur, utque pravis 
dictis factisque ex posteritate et infamia metus sit.^) He 
wishes to emphasize noble conduct and urge imitation, to show 

>) Ann. 3, G5. 



— 10 — 

the evils of base conduct and advise its avoidance, to formulate 
principles of political conduct: Posse etiam sub malis principi- 
biis magnos viros esse J) Therefore, since Tacitus' purpose is a 
moral one, and is of the heart and not simply of the head, it 
is necessarj' to consider briefly the environment in which his 
life was lived in order to understand fully his style. It is not 
enough to point out the occurences of poetical elements in his 
works, but also to know the poetry of his soul. To give ex- 
pression to his heart's pangs, and the emotion of the sublime 
moment of moral victory, he resorted to an epigrammatic style, 
sometimes going to the extreme, almost of poetical license, in 
his tendency toward vivid contrast and in his lofty appeals for 
a notice of examples of noble conduct. Hence, many times, 
like Macaulay, he prostitutes historical exactness before the 
tendency of satirical exaggeration. 

Life of Tacitus. 

Cornelius Tacitus was probably born 55 A. D. and died 
120 A. D.; hence he lived at the time of Nero, Galba, Otho, 
Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, and Trajan. His boyhood 
falls under Nero; his assumption of the „toga virilis'' perhaps 
occurred during the reign of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius; the 
former part of his manhood was spont under Vespasian and 
Titus, and the prime of his life under Domitian, while his literary 
activity reached its height under Trajan. 

How in his youth he saw, even felt, the inhuman despo- 
tism of Nero, and what an effect the anarchy and civil war 
during the year of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius had upon him, 
and how he regarded the tyrrany of Domitian, he himself tells: 
Paulatim dehinc ah undecoris ad infesta transgrediebantur 
*************_ Mamercus antiqua exempla jacens ******* 

videlicet — Scipio et Cato talia ulciscebantur.^) — — 

— — — Proprium id Tiberio fuit Scelera nuper reperta 
priscis verbis obtegere ********* silenti reo, vel si defensionem 
coeptaret, non occultante cuius ira premeretur.^) The reigns 
of Vespasian and Titus furnished a striking contrast to what 
had preceded, but alas of too short duration! But in the 
reigns of Nerva and Trajan all that pent up feehng of the 

^) Agr. 42, 5. 2) Ann. 3, 66. ^) Ann. 4, 19. 



— 11 — 

reality of crime and horror found its way out in the freedom 
of thought and speech. To Tacitus, all that had passed was a 
dramatic horror. The full force of these events and experiences 
shaped Tacitus' final style of which the poetical element is no 
small part. He was educated for the bar, and without doubt 
this had its effect upon his style, at least in the early stage 
of its development. However, as Teuffel rightly observes. „The 
Dialogus de oratoribus is an attempt to demonstrate and ex- 
plain the decay of oratorj- in the Imperial period ****." „In 
point of style this treatise is an interesting record of the period 
of Tacitus' life when, fresh from the study of Cicero's rheto- 
rical works, he endeavored to imitate that writer." i) But even 
here he feels a deviation from that author's style is imperative, 
since he himself tells us that a pleader of his day can no 
longer conduct a case as Cicero did: Novis et exquisitis elo- 
quentiae itineribus opus est, utique apud eos judices qui vi 
et potestate, non jure et legibus cognoscunt nee accipiunt 
tempora *********** sed saepe ultro **** transgredientem 
revocant *******, Quis nunc peret oratorem de infirmitate 
valetudinis suae praefantem **?2^ 



Roman Education. 

Granting that the necessity for poetical coloring found 
its beginning in the soul of Tacitus in consequence of the in- 
fluence of events and experiences upon that soul, yet there 
must have been some suggestion of the objective form with 
which to clothe the subjective feeling. The idea of the parti- 
cular poetical elements may be thought to have been born of 
the training which we may believe that a boy of position 
secured. There were no public schools at Rome: the earliest 
training which a boy secured was at home under his father 
and mother. 

Atque si vitis mediocribus ac mea paucis 
Mendosa et natura aliqui recta, — velut si 
Egregio inspersos reprehendas corpore naevos 
Si neque avaritiam tieque sordes aut mala lustra 
Objiciet vere quisquani mihi, purus et iiisons — 
Ut me colla)idetn — si et vivo cams amicis; 
Causa fuit pater his, ********»***********») 



») Teuffel II. 334. ^) Dial. 19, 20. ") Her. lib. I, Sat. 6, 65—71. 



— 12 — 

At about the age of seven the boj^s came under the care of 
regular teachers ; the teachers were generally competent slaves, 
perhaps captured in war and „were often much better educated 
than their Roman Masters". Because there was not always a 
competent slave in every family, an owner of such a slave 
would allow other boys than his own to be taught with his at 
his own home. Finally a more convenient place was secured 
and hence arose elementary schools. In these schools the sub- 
jects taught were reading, writing, and arithmetic. Horace 
refers to a school of this kind, in a touching way. 



:^:4::itc:t::i:^3i::>: 



^, qui macro pauper agello 
Noluit in flavi hcdicm me miitere, magni 
Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti 
Laevo suspcnsi loculos iabulamque lacerto, 
Ihant octonis referentes idibus aera.^) 

After the Punic wars Roman Education was extended because 
in their contact vrith other peoples the Romans came to learn 
Greek and hence to know Greek methods of education. Then 
there arose grammar schools, the teachers of which were 
Grammatici, who used as text books poetical works. But we 
may see that these text books were Latin translations of Greek 
poets, so that from the earliest times the Roman youth was 
acquainted with poetry. In the works of Tacitus we find a 
few words used by Ennius in his writings, which might indicate 
that Tacitus had studied the works of that teacher of Latin 
and Greek.-) On the introduction of Rhetoric and Grammar 
into the education at Rome Suetonius remarks: Rhetorica 
quoqiie apud nos perinde atque granimatica fere recepta est, 
paulo etiam difficiUus, quippe quam comtet nonnumquam etiam 
prohibitam exerceri ****** paulatim et ipsa (RhetoricaJ utilis 
honestaque appariiit, multique earn et praesidii causa et gloriae 
appetiverant. ******* Quare magno studio hominibus iniecto, 
magna etiam professorum ac doctorum profluxit copia, adeoque 
floruit, ut 11011 nulli ex infima fortuna in ordinem senatorium 
atque ad summos honores processerint.^) 



1) Hor. Ub. I, Sat. 6, 65-71. 

2) I have not been able to conclude whether Tacitua was acqua- 
inted with such words thru a study of Ennius or of some other author 
who had used them. 

s) De Ehet. Cap. I. 



— 13 — 

The custom of using poetical works as text-books never 

lapsed and comiiiir down to Tacitus' time we find their use 

still prevalent. Juvenal mentions the use of Horace and 
Vergil as text-books. 

Quot stabant pitcri, qiiitin totus decolor csset 
Flaccus, et haereret niffro fnligo Maroni.^) 

Teoffel observes, „ Vergil obtained from the first the highest 
reputation; his poems were at an early time admitted into 
schools, imitated, translated, commented on."-) 

Apud Vergilmm, quern propteria parvuli legioil ut.vii/e- 
licet poeta magniis omniumque praeclarissiniiis utque optimus 
teneris ebibilus anhnis non facile oblivione })osset abolcri.^) 

Fertur in scholis saepissimc cantasse inter puerulos 'Anna 
Amens Capio' (Aen. II, oliJS) — Verrjilianos versus qualiler 
eos pueri magistris praelegentibus canebamus.^) 

This practice, in school, of writing passages from Vergil, 
in prosQ, undoubtedly had a great influence upon the style of 
those who followed this exercise. Augustinus refers to this 
school custom as follows : Sine me^ deus mens, dicere aliquid 
et de ingenio meo , munere tuo, in quibiis a me' delirementis 
ad terebatur. Proponebatur enim mihi negotium animae meae 
satis inquietem praemis laudis et dedecoris, vel plagorum onetu, 
ut dicerem verba Junoiiis^) irascentis et dolentis, quod non 
potest Italia Teucrorum avertere regein, quae numqxiam Junonem 
dixisse audierim. Sed figmentorum poeticorum vestigia er- 
rantes sequi cogebamur, et tale aliquid dicere solutis verbis^ 
quale poeta dixisset versibus. Et ille dicebat laudabilius, in- 
quo pro dignitate adumbratrae personae , irae ac doloris 
si7nilior adfectus eminebat verbis sententias congruentur vesti- 
entibus.'') In the schools of Rhetoric Vergil was also used as 
a basis of exercises for the students. — Solebat fuscus ex 
Virgilio multa trahere.^) — Titianus et Calvus qui themata 
omnia de Virgilio elicuerunt et deformaverunt ad dicendi 
usum.^) 



») Sat. VII, 226—227. *) Teuffel 1, 231. 

•) Augustin, Civ. dei 1, 3. 

*) Jul. Capitol. Clod. Albin. 5, 2. 

6) Mac. Sat. 1, 24, 5. «) Aeneid I, 36—75. 

') Augustin Confess. 1, 17, 27. 

8) Sen. Suas. 3, 5. ») Serv. Aen. 10, 18. 



— 14 — 

Recitatio. 

Since multiplying books was an expensive process, and 
because a writer wished, perhaps, to gain a recognition for his 
works when finally put in -written form for the public fReci- 
tantes et benigne et patienter audiit {Pollio Asinus), nee tan- 
tum carmina et historias sed et orationesj, ^) oftentimes a 
reading or recitatio was given before a number of a writer's 
own friends fT. Labienus ******* declamavit non quidem po- 
pulo sed egreyie. Non admittebat populum et quia non dum 
haec consuetudo erat Industra et quia portabat turpe ac 
frivolae jactationis),^) or publicly in the temple of Apollo, or 
in the house of some rich and noted man. This undoubtadly 
led to the need of an emphasis upon striking ways of saying 
things — such an emphasis as would sometimes be given by 
poetical structure and archaic forms. As early as the time of 
Livius Andronicus ' the temple of Minerva in the . Plebeian 
quarter of the Aventine was assigned to the poets' guild and 
called the collegium poetarum. The recitatio may have been 
an outgrowth of this poets' guild, i. e. while the „scribae 
histrionesque" were ranked with the other collegia opificum 
and artificium, yet these may have been suggested by the 
collegium poetarum. It is wise to conclude that those who 
conducted recitationes, as litterateurs, not only frequented the 
collegium poetarum, but also carried away from there some of 
the poetical spirit; and from the frequency of their visits be- 
came well acquainted with the power of attraction found in 
poetry for commanding attention, and fully realized the value 
of this power in narrating platitudinous subjects in prose. 



AFchaisms and Graeeisms, 

Tacitus' chief prose models are Sallust and Livy, and while 
from the latter he might have imbibed the idea of some of 
the value of the poetical element in prose, he certainly in the 
former discovered the element of the striking by way of 
Archaisms, a thing which is in itself poetical. So, we find 
him using old words and thereby indulging his poetical feeling 



1) Suet Aug. 89. ») Sen. Controv. praef. 4. 



— 15 — 

which was engendered by his study of the poets and at the 
same time yielding to the necessity of Variety. 

The use of Greek words and constructions was due in 
part to • the study of poetry and in part to the prevaihng and 
increasing taste „for what was Greek as such". Although 
Tacitus was loath to introduce more of the Greek than was 
already current, yet he had to yield to the exegencies of 
the times. 

Juvenal remarks thus upon the Graecizing of Rome: 

Non possum, ferre Quirites, 
Oraecam ubem : Qtiamvis quota partis faecis Achaei? 
Jam prideyyi Syrus in Tiberim defluxit oronies, 
Et lingiiam, et mores, et cum Tibicine Chordas 
Obliquas, nee non Oentilia Tympana secum 
Vexit, et ad cireum jussas prostare puellas. 
Ite, quibus grata est picta lupa barbara mitra. 

Orammaticus, Rhetor, Oeometres, Pictor, Aliptes, 
Augur, Schoenobates, Medicus, Magis; omnia novit 
Oraeculus esuriens in caelum, jusseris, ibit. 

Qui sumpsit pennas, Mediis sed Naius Athenis.^) 



Silver Latinity. 

The age of Silver Latinity begins A. D. 14 or with the 
reign of Tiberius. Why the end of one Emperor's reign should 
conclude one style of writing and that of another give rise to 
another style might to the average student appear strange. 
But when it is considered that language is but the vehicle of 
thought, and that thought is largely the offspring of environ- 
ment or the desire for a certain set of conditions, then the 
matter clears itself. 

Under Augustus, certain kinds of literature could exist 
and were encouraged. The government had been shaken for a 
long time by civil wars, and the feeling that there was to be 
security and peace under Augustus gave rise to a literature 
which was indicative of the hopes of those who wrote. Augustus 
himself regarding such literature as the most powerful agency 
for bringing this hope of peace before the minds of men who 



») Sat. Ill, 60 et seq. 



— 16 — 

had now lost their political freedom, encouraged it. It is true, 
however, that prose was lamentably wanting in quantity during 
his reign, but if so, it was more so, relative to the number of 
years, during the century next following his reign. 

An analysis of Silver Latinity shows the following to 
be true. 

Change of periodic style to short conversational style. 

Greek constructions introduced. 

Many new words adopted. Old words changed or given 
new meaning. 

Rhetorical figures replace natural and proper methods. 

BrilUant figurative style. 

Cultivated antithesis. 

Artificial rhetorical methods. 
During the years 14 — 117, for the most part, tyranny, 
despotism, and irresponsible emperors were the order. Men 
could not talk, much less write. Under such conditions they 
thought, and those who did not think simply looked on at the 
passing scene and became „sour and morbid". What had been 
the rule became the exception, and the rule came to be that 
men in their silence became unnatural in their thoughts or 
ways of thinking and hence their language unnatural when the 
time came for expression. But if these thoughts determined 
the kind of expression, they did not determine the quality. As 
has been remarked above (Page 9), some vehicle of language 
had to be found to reiterate crime after crime in a striking 
way; and this all the more so on account of the recitatio. 
Vide Page 14. Hence the elements in the above analysis, and 
of which Tacitus stands as the example and exponent. 

The Dialogus/) 

It is interesting to note, and worthy of more than passing 
thought, how much of the poetical there is in the Dialogus,^) 



1) This remark on the Dialogus is made here simply to emphasize 
the fact that the smouldering scintiUa of the poetical is present and that 
it burns more and more thru his successive -works, until it bursts out in 
full blaze in the Annals. 

^) It is assumed that Tacitus wrote the Dialogus. Beatus Ehenanus 
(1485 — 1547) questioned the Tacitean Authorship, also Justus Lipsius (1547 
to 1606). The work has been assigned severally, to Quintillian and Pliny. 



— 17 — 

since in it Tacitus seeks to measure up to the Ciceronian 
standard as far as possible; V. page 11, for it shows that Ta- 
citus was unable to get away altogether from the poetical in- 
fluence instilled within him by the study of the poets. 

Genitive of Specification.') 
incertus futuri 13. patientissimus veri 8. 

Ablative of Place. 
Statuar tumulo 13. Exsurgit toris 21. 

Simple for Compound Verbs, 
pellere = depellere 17. flexisse = deflexisse 19. 

Quamquam with Subjunctive. 

quamquam disputes 15. quamquam .... natus 

sit 21. 

Infinitive depending upon an adjective, 
obnoxium offendere 10. manifestus est accingi 16. 
probasse contentus 18. significasse contentus 28. 
detrectasse contentus 26. 

Anastrophe. 
ipso quin immo 6. inde quin immo 33. impsam quin 
immo 39. 

Variety mixed with Poetical Coloring, 
fatalis et mens dies 18. 

Tacitus' Works in General. 
A. Variety mixed with Poetical Coloring. 

Nowhere does Tacitus feel the necessity of euphemism 
more than in mentioning death, and in this he shows a great 
variety tinctured with the poetical element. In this variety 
found in his works, Tacitus displays that finer soul feehng and 
keener sympathy which is alone characteristic of those who have 
seen and felt, and possibly been compelled to aid in condemning 
some unfortunate creature, the object of a tjrant's hatred. 



^) These references will be found in duplicate elsewhere iu the body 
of the thesis for facility in comparison of occurence. 

2 



— 18 — 

reliquendae vitae certus an 4, 34. finis sponte sumptus ann. 
6, 25. quaesita mors ann. 3, 16. suo ictu mortem invenire 
ann, 1, 61. finem vitae sibi ponere ann. 6, 40. sumere exitium 
ann. 3, 7. voluntario exitu cadere ann. 6, 40. sua mann 
cadere an. 6, 39. mortem sponte sumere ann. 2, 66. se vita 
privare ann. 4, 30. se ipsum interficere H. 2, 18. Voluntate 
exstingui ann. 6, 25. vim vitae suae adferre ann. 6, 38; 12, 
59. Vitam abstinentia finire 4, 35. egestate cibi perimi ann. 
6, 25. (Venenum) haurire ann. 15, 64; 16, 14. gladio in- 
cumbere ann. 5, 7. Senile manu ferrum tentare ann. 6, 9. 
fuso per venas sanguine extinguitur H. 11, 16. per abruptas 

venas sanguinem effudit ann. 6, 29. incisas venas 

aperire rursum ann. 16, 19. brachia exsolvere ann. 15, 63. 
levem ictum venis inferre ann. 5, 89. Morte fato propere 
auferri ann. 1, 3. Mortem obire ann. 2, 83; 16, 6. Mortali- 
tatem explere aim. 14, 4, finem vitae [implere ann. 2, 42. 
Supremum diem explere ann. 1, 6. concedere vita ann. 1, 3; 
3, 30; 6, 39; 12, 39; 14, 51. Vitam finire ann. 1, 9. fatalis 
et meus dies D. 18, 13; H. 1, 18. Venas resolvit ann. 6, 48; 
6, 9. abruptis brachiorum venis obiit an. 15, 59. suadente 
venas abrumpere an. 16, 9. brachiorum venas Torquatus inter 
scidit an. 15, 35. abscinditur venae an. 15, 16. eodem ferre 
abscindunt venas an. 16, 11. Venae quamquam interruptae 
parum sanguinis effundebant ann. 16, 5. defunctis regibus 
ann. 12, 23; 2, 42; H. 5, 9. defuncto rege an. 6, 3; 1, 3; 
1, 7; 2, 66. Marcello defuncto an. 6, 27. defuncto Augusto 
an. 6, 27. quo defuncto an. 2, 64; 3, 56. etiam defuncto 
necdum sepulto curiam ingressus est ann. 4, 85. quartum 
intra mensem defuncto infante ann. 15, 23. ibi defunctis 
fatale praesagium implevit ann. 11, 21. vitam defuncti homi- 
nis A. 1, 13. cito extinguuntur A. 3. Extinguuntur magnae 

animae A. 46. Alterum exstinguendo an. 4, 15. fuso 

per venas sanguine exstinguitur H. 4, 11. ferro 

veneno .... exstinctas ann. 3, 19. Morte fortuita an per vene- 
num exstinctus esset an. 12, 52. quo damnati exstin- 

gueretur an. 15, 64. intra annum exstinctus est Agr. 14. 
Druso pridem exstincto an. 1, 3. Neque multo post extincto 
Maximo an. 1, 5. Neque multo poet extinguitur an. 2, 72. 
Si extinctus foret an. 3, 49. Drusus deinde extinguitur an. 

6, 23. Seniores extinguuntur an. 16, 11. Nee 

ilium sponte extinctum an. 3, 16. quam voluntate 



— 19 — 

eitinctam an. 6, 25. Athienses tot chidibus extinctos an. 2, 55. 

Multo obisse an. 3, 63. obiere eo anno vivi inlustres 

an. 3, 75. obiere eo anno viri nobiles an. 4, 44. obiit et An- 
tonius an. 4, 44. obiit eodem anno et Lepidus an. 6, 27. fate 
obiit an. 6, 10. Mortis imaginem obisse an. 15, 70. Bumis 
concessit vita ann. 14, 51. eodem mori oppeteret nan. 2, 24. 
eodem modo oppeterent an. 4, 50. Titam pessima morte 
tinierim an. 2, 71. vitamqne .... finivit an. 4, 35. Boudicca 
vitam veneno finivit ann. 14, 37. finita Juliorum Claudionimque 
dome H. 1, 16. 

In the following examples Tacitus shows his poetical in- 
stinct. Poetry is music expressed in words and music is one 
of the soul's best possessions when truly possessed by it. So 
poetry is a soul possession and all outside effort does not give 
it being, but only embellishes what already is. The poetical 
element in Tacitus is not artificial, the product simply of 
materials in a master's hand, they are rather the articles of 
embellishment, the articles of expression and agents of his 
soul. The Elegy is no less poetic because it may be doleful, 
no less beautiful because of the subject matter which it may 
contain. So then Poetic elements are no more out of place in 
the writings of Tacitus because they tell of direful portents 
and awful deeds. 

propinqua vespera ann. 15, 60. flexo in vesperam die ann. 

1, 16. Vesperante die H. 4, 9; ann. 1, 65; 16, 34. inum- 
brante vespera H. 3, 19. praecipiti in occasum die H. 3, 86. 
extremo die H. 3, 10. sero diei ann. 2, 21. obscuro diei an. 

2, 39. Vergente autumno an. 11, 4. Noctumae quietas species 
ann. 11, 4. oculorum tabe H. 4, 81. oculorum orbes = oculos 
H. 4, 81. Vergente jam die an. 13, 38. inclinabat dies an. 
12, 39. TJbi defecisset dies an. 15, 44. 

B. Taoitns' Real Debt to Vergil. 

It is possible to see that Tacitus is indebted to Vergil in 
at^ least three ways. Viz: 

I. Poetical words first introduced by Tacitus into Prose. 

II. Certain words hitherto, in senses exclusively poetical. 

in. Keminiscences. 



— 20 — 

His debt means that he laid Vergil deeply under contribution: 
he has borrowed. The same might be said in regard to Sallust 
and Livy: i. e. they appropriated whatever they needed. This 
was not plagiarism — such a term was not in the Roman 
vocabulary; and with us that is not the term to be applied. 
In the main Tacitus borrowed simply expressions and ways of 
saying things — things which were far different from those 
which were said by the ones from whom he borrowed. What- 
ever he borrowed was made his own by the process of going 
through his own mind and the process was justified by 
the end. 

The Romans were a mihtary and government making 
people and were so engaged in these pursuits that their imagi- 
nations could not operate, if they had any at all. History 
such as Tacitus produced could not have been written at all, 
in Latin, in 250 B. C, to say nothing of the elements which 
we find in his works. Greek influence shows itself from be- 
ginning to end in Roman history. The first teacher of Latin 
and Greek at Rome was Livius Andronicus, 284 — 204 B. C, 
who in order to furnish his pupils with a Latin text, translated 
the Odyssey in verse, the old Saturnian measure. Already in 
Greece we find well finished and completed Hexameters and 
Iambics, and it is only plausible that a Greek teacher should 
borrow from a language so mature in its structure and style. 
Cn. Nevius, cir. 235 B. C, like Livius drew largely from Greek 
sources, while Ennius, 239—169 B. C, succeeded not only in 
interesting his patrons and the nobles in Greek literature, but 
also made vigorous use of the cultural elements in the Greek 
masters in his own works. Caesar and Cicero had Greek 
masters and borrowed from them; Vergil is deeply indebted to 
the Greeks for constructions, words, and Mythology — for 
which he has been severely criticised. In the Bucolics Theo- 
critus was his pattern; in the Georgics Hesiod; in the Aeneid 
Homer. Horace followed Archilochus; Plautus borrowed from 
Menander, and Propertius has been called the "Roman Calli- 
machus". 

Roman authors were judged not on their own merit, ^but 
rather on how near they came to the Greek pattern. After 
centuries of such feeling it became a Roman writer's virtue to 
borrow in order to attain the desired end in literature. Tacitus 
was a Roman in this respect and he could get away from this 



— 21 — 

order of things no more than from the poetical instinct within 
his soul. 

I. Poetical words first introduced by Tacitus into Prose. 

advectare = advehere an. 6, 13. Val Flac. 
ambedere = circumrodere an. 15, 5. Verg. Aen. 3, 257. 
brevia = sjrtes an. 1, 70; 6, 33. Verg. Aen. 1, 111. 
celerare = accelerare an. 2, 5 et al. Verg. Aen. 1, 357 et al. 
densere = densare an. 2, 14. Verg. Aen. 12, 264; 11, 650; 7, 794. 
didere = dare an. 11, 1. Verg. Aen. 8, 132. 
eburnus = eburneus an. 2, 83; 4, 26. Verg. Aen. 6, 647; 11, 11. 
evincere = subigere an. 6, 42 et al. Verg. Aen. 2, 630. 
exspes = desperatus an. 6, 24. Horace, 
honorus = honorificus an. 1, 10 et al. Val. Flac. Stat, 
inclementia = severitas an. 4, 42. Verg. Aen. 2, 602. 
incustoditus = sine custodibns an. 2, 12. Ov, Mart, 
indefessus r= non defessus an. 1, 64 et al. Verg. Aen. 11, 651. 
insatiabiliter = sine satietate an. 4, 38. Lucr. 3, 907. 
intemeratus = integer an. 1, 42. Verg. Aen. 2, 143; 3, 178. 
inviolabilis = inviolatus an. 3, 62 et al. Verg. Aen. 11, 363. 
lapsare = labere an. 1, 65. Verg. Aen. 2, 551. 
livere = invidere an. 13, 42. Verg. Aen. 7, 687. 
Mersare =: Mergere an. 15, 69. Verg. Geo. 1, 272. 
Xotescere = enotescere, fierie cognitus, an. 1,73 et al Cat. Prop, 
penetrabilis =: penetrari posse an. 2, 61. Verg. Aen. 10, 481. 

Georg. 1, 93. 
praescius = praesciscens an. 6, 21. Verg. 6, 66. 
piolicere = illicere an. 3, 73. Plaut. Ovid, 
properus =: alacer, velox, citus, an. 1, 65 et al. Verg. Aen. 12, 85. 
Solum in Tacitus with Genitive or Infinitive, 
provisor = qui praesensionem habet an. 12, 14. Hor. 
reclinis = reflectus an. 13, 16 et al. Ovid, 
secundare = facere prosperus an. 2, 24. Verg. Aen. 3, 36. 
sonor = fremitus an. 1, 65. Verg. Aen. 9, 651. 
transmovere = transferre an. 13, 35. Ter. Mart, 
tnidis = pertica acuta an. 3, 46. Verg. Aen. 5, 208. 
Valescere = esse validus an. 2, 39 et al. Lucr. 

n. Words hitherto exclusively poetical. 

abitus = exitus an. 14, 37. Verg. Aen. 9, 380. 
circumfluus = circumventus aqua an. 6, 37. Ov. 



— 22 - 

cura = opus scriptomm an. 3, 24. Ov. 

demissus = natus an. 12, 58. Verg. Geo. 3, 35. 

educere = exstruere an. 2, 61 et al. Verg. Aen. 2, 186. 

evictu8 = exoratus an. 4, 57 et al. Verg. Aen. 4, 548 et al. 

intentatus = inexpertus an. 1, 50 et al. Verg. Aen. 10, 39. 

sistere = aedificare an. 4, 37 et al. Sil. 

ampliare = augere H. 2, 78. 

componere = seppelire an. 1, 47. Verg. Aen. 1, 249. 

exercere = colere Ag. 31. an. 13, 54; 12, 43. Ger. 29. Verg. 

Aen. 4, 110. 
exigere = degere H. 1, 47. A. 38. H. 3, 33. an. 3, 16. Verg. 

Aen. 1, 75. 
provenire = fortunare H. 2, 20. 
scriptura = liber an. 4, 32; 3, 31. 
ferratus = ferro armatus H. 4, 29. 
flagitium = efflagitis an 4, 51. 
flagitium = verba flagitiosa an. 1, 27. 
flagitium = dedecus an. 3, 17. 

amovere = relegare an. 1, 53; 2, 58; 4, 21. Verg. Aen. 6, 524. 
coMbere = regere H. 1, 11. Verg. Aen. 12, 405. 
gravare -^ augere an. 14, 12. 
auraria = fodina an. 6, 19. 

adolere = cremare an. 6, 28; 14, 30. H. 2, 3. Verg. Aen. 7, 71. 
aegrescere = dolere an. 15, 25. Verg. Aen. 12, 46. 
ardescere = fulgere an, 15, 54. Verg. Aen. 1, 713. 
conterminus = finitimus G. 36. an. 1, 60; 11, 16; 15, 1; 3, 

45. H. 4, 67. 
contiguus = finitimus an. 2, 60; 6, 45; 15, 38. Verg. Aen. 

10, 457. 
convectare = conferre H. 3, 27. Verg. Aen. 4, 405. 
crebrescere = crescere H. 3, 34; 4, 12; 2, 67. an. 3, 60; 2, 39. 

Verg. Aen. 12, 407. 
deserta = regiones vastas an. 3, 21. Verg. Aen. 1, 384. 
desolatus = solus relictus an. 1, 30; 12, 26; 16, 80; Verg. 

Aen. 11, 870. 
despectare = despicere H. 2, 30. an. 2, 43. Verg. Aen. 1, 396. 
evalescere = posse G. 28. H. 1, 80. Verg. Aen. 7, 757. 
evincere = supero H. 4, 53. an. 6, 42; 15, 2; 11, 4. Verg. 

Aen. 2, 630. 
exspes = desperatus an. 6, 24. 
exuberare = abundare D. 30. an. 15, 53. Verg. Aen. 7, 465. 



- 23 - 

fatiscere = deficere an. 3, 38; 6, 7; 14, 24; 16, 5. Verg. Geo. 

1, 180. 
feralis = adj. = ad inferos, funus pertinet G. 43. H. 1, 37. 

an. 2, 31; 2, 75; 3, 1 ; 14, 30; Subst. mortem fereno, 

funestus an. 1, 62. H. 5, 25. an. 4, 64. Verg. 

Aen. 6, 216; 4, 462. 
flammare = incendere H. 2, 74; 4, 24. an. 15, 44. Verg. 

Aen. 1, 50. 
gestamen = vehiculum =: carpentum an. 11, 33; 2, 2; 14, 4; 

15, 57. 
grandaevus = senes H. 3, 33. Verg. Aen. 5, 287 et al. 
gravescere = augeri an. 1, 5; 6, 46; 14, 51. Verg. Geo. 2, 429. 
illuvies = inundatis, eluvies, an. 12, 51. H. 4, 46. an. 4, 28; 

6, 43; 1, 24. Verg. Aen. 3, 593. 
immotus = stabilis, imperturbatus H. 1, 10. an. 15, 36; 1, 47; 

15, 59; 15, 23. G. 40. an. 4, 32; 15, 27; 15, 46; 

1, 51; 4, 50; 14, 37. G. 45. H. 1, 86. an. 16, 15; 

2, 29. Verg. Aen. 3, 77; 1, 257. 
impervius = invius, impenetrabilis an. 3, 31; 15, 43. 
inausus = intentatus an. 1, 42. Verg. Aen. 7, 308. 
indecoris = non speciosus; id quod dedecet H. 1, 74. inhonestus 

H. 1, 33; 2, 91. an. 3, 52; 3, 66. contemptus A. 16. 

Verg. Aen. 7, 231; 11, 423; 11, 845. 
indigus = egens H. 1, 24; 3, 22; 3, 48; 5, 2. Verg. Geo. 

2, 428. 
indistinctus = sine dignitate an. 0, 8. 

inemptus = non emptus largitione H. 2, 60. Verg. Geo. 4, 133. 
iniectus = induere an. 6, 50. Verg. Eel. 6, 19. 
innectare =^ jungere, implicare H. 4, 46; 4, 53; 4, 68. an. 6, 37; 

16, 14; 3, 10. Verg. Aen. 4, 51. 
insenescere = fit grandior an. 4, 6. 

insurgere = surgere se attolere G. 39. A. 35. an. 2, 16; 1, 

2; 11, 16. Verg. Aen. 5, 443. 
junctissimus = valde junctus H. 4, 52. 
lentescere = fieri lentus G. 45. Verg. Geo. 2, 250. 
ligere = vincere G. 39. H. 4, 58. Verg. Aen. 2, 217. 
magniloquus = gloriosus, jactans, vaniloquus A. 27. 
marcere = esse iners H. 3, 36. G. 36. 
marcidus = somno gravis an. 6, 4. 
meatus = cursus, iter volatu H. 1, 62. an. 6, 28. G. 1. an. 

14, 51. Verg. Aen. 6, 849. 



— 24 — 

monstrator = demonstrator, inventor G. 21. Verg. Geo. 1, 19. 
obliquare = reflectere, revertere G. 38. Verg. Aen. 5, 16. 
obumbrare — obscurare H. 2, 32. Verg. Aen. 12, 578. 
occursus = congressus H. 3, 8-4; 2, 88. an. 4, 60; 15, 58. 

14, 5; 16, 24. 
pervigil = valde vigil an. 1, 65. 

placitus = jucundus an. 2, 66; 4, 37. Verg. Aen. 4, 38. 
placitus = Subst. an. 1, 80; 3, 69; 14, 22. D. 19. Verg. 

Eel. 7, 27. 
refusus = redundans H. 1, 86. Verg. Geo. 2, 163. Aen. 

7, 225. 
praesagus = vaticanus H. 2, 1; 3, 9. an. 9, 27. Verg. Aen. 

10, 177. 
praesumere = praevenire, praecipere an. 14, 3; 1, 48. H. 1, 

62. Verg. Aen. 11, 18. 
proculcare = conculcare, perequitare H. 3, 81; 1, 40. Verg. 

Aen. 12, 534. 
prolicere = excitare an. 13, 48; 3, 73. 
propitiare = conciliare an. 15, 44. D. 9. 
provisor = qui praesensionem habet an. 12, 4. Hor. 
puellaris = juvenilis an. 14, 2. 
ramale = ramus arefactus an. 13, 58. 
rebellis = seditiosus H. 4, 15, 72. an. 3, 15; 14, 39. Verg. 

Aen. 6, 858. 
receptare = recipere an. 4, 41. Verg. Aen. 10, 383. 
recludere = aperire an 4, 70; 14, 44. Verg. Aen. 1, 358. 
recursare = reverti H. 2, 78. Verg. Aen. 1, 662. 
refugus = regressus H. 2, 24; 3, 61. 
regnator = rex G. 39. Verg. Aen. 2, 779 et al. 
resumere = renovare H. 2, 41. an. 12, 15; 13, 51. iterare 

H. 5, 8. an. 3, 40; 14, 31. 
revelare = aperire G. 31. 

rigor = severitas G. 18. an. 2, 23. Verg. Geo. 1, 143. 
sinistre = non propitium H. 1, 7; 3, 52. Verg. Eel. 9, 15. 
sinuare = fleetere, eurvare an. 6, 37. H. 5, 2. G. 35. Verg. 

Aen. 2, 208. 
solidare = munire H. 2, 19. Verg. Geo. 1, 179. 
subvectare = subvehere an. 15, 43. Verg. Aen. 11, 131. 
suffugium = perfugium an. 4, 47; 3, 74. G. 16, 46. an. 4, 

66; 14, 58. 
suspectare = instare H. 4, 23, 30; 3, 82. 



— 25 — 

tabum = sanies, sanguis H. 2, 70; 3, 35. an. 2, 69. Verg. 

Aen. 3, 29; 11, 737. 
temnere = contemnere H. 3, 47. Verg. Aen. 1, 665. 
tenuare = extenuare an. 15, 63. Verg. Geo. 3, 129. 
tremor = motus an. 14, 27. Verg. Geo. 2, 479. 
undare = abundare H. 5, 6. an. 6, 39. Verg. Aen. 2, 609. 
velamen = vestitus G. 17. Verg. Aen. 6, 221. 
experientia = usus an. 13, 8. H. 2, 76. an. 1, 46; 13, 6 

et al. Verg. Georg. 1, 4. 
regnatrix = regina an. 1, 4. 

festinavisse = transitive an. 1, 6. Verg. Aen. 4, 575. 
diversus = separatus an. 13, 48; 14, 57. Verg. Aen. 9, 623. 

remotus an. 1, 17. Verg. Aen. 3, 4. 
piaculo = piamento an. 1, 30. Verg. Aen. 6, 569. 
species = acies occulorum an. 11, 31. Verg. Aen. 2, 407. 
triste = substantive an. 15, 31. Verg. Eel. 3, 80. 
annus = proventus anni A. 31. G. 14. 
transigere = transfigere an. 2, 68; 14, 37; 9, 9. 
transmittere = transire silentia H. 4, 31. 
medicamen = medicamentum an. 12, 51; 14, 6; 4, 57; 12, 

67; 14, 51. 
fragmen = fragmentum H. 5, 6. an. 1, 61. Verg. Aen. 9, 

569. 
tegumen = tegumentum H. 1, 79. an. 2, 21. G. 17. Verg. 

Aen. 1, 275; 3, 594; 9, 577; 11, 77. 
pueperium = partus an. 12, 6; 15, 23. 
sinister = malus A. 5. H. 1, 51. an. 6, 32; 11,. 19; 1, 74. 

Verg. Geo. 1, 444. 
lymphati = turibundi H. 1, 82. an. 1, 32. Verg. Aen. 7, 

377. 
indiscretis = individuus H. 4, 52. promiscuus an. 15, 32. 

confusus an. 1, 35. Verg. Aen. 10, 392. 
inausum = intentatus an. 1, 42. Verg. Aen. 7, 308; 2, 143. 
intemeratum = immodicum an. 1, 42. Verg. Aen. 7, 308. 
causatus = agens an. 1, 47; 13, 44. 
egenam = inopem an. 1, 53. Verg. Aen. 1, 599. 
inofensum = non interruptus an. 1, 56. 
resulto = resono an. 1, 65. 
oberro = pervagor an. 1, 65. 
lapsantes = labentes an. 1, 65. 
fretum = mare an. 1, 70. 



— 26 — 

stagnaverat = inundare an. 1, 76. Ov. Met. 15, 269. 

dedignor =: contemnere an. 2, 2. 

explorare = tentare an. 2, 12. 

adsultibus = impetum an. 2, 21. "Verg. Aen. 5, 442. 

regimen = gubemaculum or clavis an. 2, 23. Or. Met. 11, 

552. 
recluderent = aperirent an. 2, 25. Verg. Geo. 2, 423. 
stirps = posteri an. 2, 37. Ov. Trist. 3, 14, 14. Verg. Aen. 

6, 864. 
vanescere = evanescere an. 2, 40; 2, 82; 4, 37; 5, 9. 
despectare = despicere an. 2, 43. H. 2, 30. 
religit = oram legere an. 2, 54. 
eductae = instnictae an. 2, 61. Verg. Aen. 2, 186. 
defectum = debilitatum an. 2, 70. participle chiefly poetical 

cf. Ovid Met. 10, 194. lib. 2, 5, 75. 
gratantis = gratulantis an. 2, 75; 6, 21; 12, 7; 14, 8. 
derupto = abrupto an. 2, 80; 6, 21; 4, 45. Lucr. 
fidissimum =^ tutissimum an. 3, 1. Verg. Aen. 2, 23, 400. 
adrecta = excitata videre an. 3, 11. 
meditans = exercitans an. 3, 31. Verg. Eel. 1, 2 et al. 
expediam =: exponam an. 4, 1. Verg. Aen. 3, 379, 460. 
demutare = mutare an. 4, 16. 
demissum = ortum an. 12, 58. Verg. Geo. 3, 35. Aen. 1, 

288. Hor. Sat. 2, 5, 63. 
rapi = diripi an. 13, 6. Verg. Aen. 2, 374. 
inducit = adducit an. 13, 39. Verg. Aen. 11, 620. 
fluvialibus == fluviis an. 13, 57. 
fetus = surculus an. 13, 58. Verg. Geo. 2, 69 et al. 
vocans = invocans an. 13, 55. Verg. Aen. 3, 264. 
involvunt = implicunt an. 14, 30. Verg. Geo. 2, 308. 
involvuntur = implicuntur an. 1, 70. Verg. Aen. 6, 336. 
fibris = extis an. 14, 30. H. 2, 3. Verg. Geo. 1, 484. 
exsultabant = subsaltabant an. 14, 34. Verg. Aen. 11, 663. 
sonores = sonitus an. 14, 36. 

intorquenda = jacienda an. 14, 36. Verg. Aen. 2, 231. 
expedire = exponere an. 14, 35; 4, 1. Verg. Aen. 3, 379, 

460. 
evalesceret = fieret validus an. 14, 58. Verg. Aen. 7, 757. 
Tolens = habens in animo an. 15, 1. Verg. Geo. 4, 501. 
evinxit = circumvinxit an. 15, 2; 6, 42. H. 4, 53. Verg. 

Aen. 5, 269. 



— 27 — 

aegresceret = fieret pejor an. 15, 25. Verg. Aen. 12, 46. 

Lucr. 5, 350. 
ingniente = irruente an. 15, 3. Verg. Aen. 12, 628. 
tractu = regione an. 15, 37. Verg. Geo. 3, 183. Val Flac. 

6, 359. 
solidarentur = facere solidum an. 15, 43. Verg. Geo. 1, 179. 
propitiata = facere propitium an. 15, 44. D. 9. 
tenuatum =^ facere tenuem an. 15, 63. Hor. Sat. 2, 2, 84 

et al. 
obolitum = deletum an. 16, 6. Verg. Aen. 4, 497. G. 3, 560. 
adsimilatis = fictis an. 16, 17. Verg. Aen. 10, 639. 
indefessum = non defessum an. 16, 22. Verg. Aen. 11, 651. 
spargens = adspergens an. 16, 35. Lucr. 2, 195. Hor. Epod. 

5, 25. 
adscire = adsciscere an. 1, 3. H. 4, 24, 80. Verg. Aen. 

12, 38. 
celerare = contendere an. 2, 5. Verg. 
de nomine = poetical phrase an. 1, 15; 6, 34. Lucr. 6, 908. 

Verg. Aen. 1, 277. 
causatus = agens an. 1, 47; 13, 44. 
fida an. 1, 52. applied to inanimate objects is poetical, 
temeravit = contaminare an. 1, 53. Verg. Aen. 6, 840. 
properavit an. 1, 56. when transitive is particularly poetical 
explorandos = tentandos an. 2, 12. 
claudae =: infirmae an. 2, 24. Lucr. 4, 436. Verg. Aen. 5, 

271. 
secreti = refugii an. 2, 39; 4, 54, 57; 14, 53. Verg. Geo. 

4, 403. 
crebrescit = fama auget an. 2, 39. H. 2, 67. Verg. Aen. 

12, 222. 
properantius = comparative is poetical, an. 2, 55. 
accitu =^ used only in ablative singular, an. 2, 80. Aen. 

1, 677. 

silentia = plural confined to poets, an. 2, 82. Verg. Aen. 

2, 255. 

exalto = in mare aperto an. 3, 1. Verg. Geo. 3, 288. 
quatenus = quoniam an. 3, 16. D. 5. Lucr. Hor. Ov. 
visis (passive use chiefly poetical) an. 3, 42; 2, 31. H. 3, 62. 

Aen. 1, 326. 
restantibus := resistantibus. 
ausis = in the passive chiefly poetical, an. 3, 69. Aen. 9, 320. 



— 28 — 

tumidos = iratos an. 4, 12. 

raptabat = populabat an. 4, 23; 12, 54; 13, 6. Verg. Aen. 

2, 374. 
contusis = superatis A. 4, 46; 12, 31. H. 4, 28. Verg. Aen. 

1, 264. 
persultabant = insiliebant an. 4, 47; 11, 9. H. 5, 15. Lucr. 

1, 14. 
adsimulabat = simulabat an. 4, 59. Verg. Aen. 10, 639. 
terga = pelles an. 4, 72; 15, 44. H. 2, 88. Verg. Aen. 

1, 368. 
corpora = a periphrasis an. 4, 72. Verg. Aen. 9, 273. Cf. 

liberis corporibus Aen. 12, 17, 1. 
verbere = rare and poetical in the singular, an. 6, 4; 6, 24. 

G. 19. 
populatores = raptores an. 12, 27. 
vapore = calore an. 11, 3; 3, 44; 14, 6; 15, 55. 
discors =: inimicus an. 11, 14. 
clarescere = fieri inclitus an. 11, 16. Lucr. 5, 833. 
desolatus = deprivatus an. 12, 26 ; 1, 30. Stat. Theb. 9, 672. 

Apul. Met. 4, 24, 290. 
aspectat = aspicit an. 12, 32. Verg. Aen. 1, 420. 
pignora = liberi an. 12, 2 et al. Prop. 4 (5), 11, 72. Ov. 

Met. 11, 543. 
regnari = personal use poetical, an. 13, 54. H. 1, 16. G. 

25, 44. 
triumphari = personal use poetical, an. 12, 19. 
dubitari = personal use poetical, an. 14, 7. 
ministrari = personal use poetical. G. 44. 
fetus = surculus an. 13, 58. Verg. Geo. 2, 69 et al. 
praegredientem = praeter gredientem an. 14, 23. 
obnoxios = obligates, serviles H. 1, 1. Verg. Geo. 1, 396. 
mucronibus = gladiis H. 1, 27. 
fatigabat = moliebatur deos precibus H. 1, 29. Lucr. 2, 

1237. 
hausisse = animo fingere H. 1, 51. Verg. Aen. 10, 648. 
derimitur = dividitur H. 1, 76. Verg. Aen. 8, 226. 
communus = suis ipsis manibus H. 2, 35. Verg. Gen, 1, 104. 
die = sole H. 3, 86. 
sors = responsum H. 4, 83. 
obiectu = prominentia H. 5, 14; 3, 9. Verg. Aen. 1, 59. 



— 29 — 

111. Reminiscences. 
Exigitur enim jam ah oratore et jam poeticus decor, non 
Accii aut Pacuvii veterano inquinatus, sed ex Iloratii et Vir- 
gilii et Lucani Sacrario Prolatus. D. 20. 

Immotum fixumque an. 1, 47. fixum immotumque 

Aen. 4, 15, 

armorum facies an. 1, 49. Laborum facies Aen. 6, 103. 

exercitum rapit an. 1, 56. rapit . . . aciem Aen. 10, 308. 

vulnus adactum an. 1, 61. vulnus adactum Aen. 10, 850. 

excindit .... hostem an. 2, 25. Exscindere gentem Aen. 9, 137. 
manus .... voces .... tendens an. 2, 29. tendoque cum 

voce manus Aen. 3, 17. 
conlustrans cuncta an. 2, 45. omnia conlustrans Aen. 3, 651. 
instar montium an. 2, 61. instar montis Aen. 2, 15. 
hastas .... ingerere an. 2, 81. ingerit hastas Aen. 9, 763. 
quae fiducia reo an. 3, 11. quae sit fiducia capto Aen. 2, 75. 
argenti et auri pondus an. 3, 53. Argenti pontus et auri. 

Aen. 1, 359. 
Si incubuissent an. 4, 24. turn vero incumbunt 

Aen. 9, 73. 
contusis . . . gentibus an. 4, 46. populusque . . . contundet 

Aen. 1, 264. 
vivoque in saxo an. 4, 55. vivo . . . saxo Aen. 1, 167. 
sennonem abrumpere an. 4, 60. sermonem abrumpit Aen. 

4, 388. 
gravis exitus an. 4, 74. Manet . . . gravis exitus Aen. 10, 630. 
rupta voce an. 6, 20. rumpit vocem Aen. 2, 129. 
fusam humi an. 11, 37. fusus humi Aen. 6, 423. 
poenas .... expenderet an. 12, 19. expendere poenas Aen. 

IC, 669. 
locorum fraude an. 12, 33. fraude loci Aen. 9, 397. 
rapiunt deripiunt an. 13, 6. Aen. 2, 374. 
pieces .... fundentes an. 14, 30. funditque pieces Aen. 6, 55. 
belli commercium an. 14, 33. belli commerci Aen. 10, 532. 
pacem .... abrampunt an. 15, 2. fas omne abrumpit Aen. 

3, 55. 
fessis rebus succurreret an. 15, 50. rebus succurite fessis 

Aen. 11, 335. 
mortis imaginem an. 15, 70. mortis imago Aen. 2, 369. 
abrumperet vitam an. 16, 28. abrumpere vitam Aen. 8, 579. 



— 30 — 

anna rapuerunt an 1 49.1 ^^^ Aen. 7, 340; 8, 220. 

arma rapiunt an. -::, 19. J 

vnlnus adegit an 6 35 | ^,1^^,^ ^.^gere Aen. 10, 140. 
vulnera dengebant H. 2, 35. J 

abruptis vinculis an. 1, 66. abruptis vinculis Aen. 11, 492. 
patxus omnibus an. 1 80 1 ^^.^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^2. 

insigmbus patnis an. 15, Z9. J 

auro solida an. 2, 33. 1 tj- * o ^ck 

' .,« > auro solidi Aen. 2, 765. 
auro solidas an. 13, 10. J 

.. , , c^ Arr i spolia .... derepta Aen. 11, 193. 
spoha derepta an. 2, 45. | ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 3^ 5^ ^^^ 

litorum oram an. 2, 78. litoris oram Geo. 2, 44. 

quantum liceret an. 3, 15. tantum . . . licuit Aen. 6, 502. 

plura revolvo an. 3, 18. ingrata revolvo Aen. 2, 101. 

spargit bellum an. 3, 21. 1 * ^7 kki 

^ ^. , ,, . oo r spargam arma per agros Aen. 7, 551. 
spargi bellum Agr. 38. J '^ ° 

secundo rumore an. 3, 29. secundo rumore Aen. 8, 90. 

somno et vino procumbere an. 4, 48. somno vinoque soluti 

Aen. 4, 474. 
precibus evictus an. 4, 57. evicta dolore Aen. 4, 474. 
fidentem animi an. 4, 59. fidens animi Aen. 2, 61. 
sibi ignoscit an. 6, 6. ignotum dare nobis Hor. Sat. 1, 3, 23. 
praestantissimus sapientiae an. 6, 7. praestans animi Aen. 

12, 19. 

tota mole regni an. 6, 36.1 . , . . n oio 

1 1 IV TT 1 /?! r toto . . . corpore regm Aen. 11, 313. 
tota mole belli H. 1, 61. J r o 

dedita . . . fama an. 11, 1. tua terris dedita fama Aen. 8, 132. 

laeta in praesens an. 11, 15. laetus in praesens animus Hor. 

Od. 2, 16, 25. 
pellibus accinctae an. 11, 31. incinctae pellibus hastas Aen. 

7, 396. 
fluxa arma H. 2, 99. fluxos .... astrinxit amictus Lucr. 2, 362. 
lacrimae et questos inriti ducebantur an. 11, 37. ducere voces 

Aen. 4, 463. 
hostes ingruit an. 12, 12. ingruit Aeneas Aen. 12, 628. 

f in amicitiam coeant Aen. 7, 546. 
in societatem coeant an, 12, 15. ! coeant in foedera dextrae Aen. 

I 11, 292. 

subtrahere oculis an. 13, 17. teque aspectune subtrahe nostro 

Aen. 6, 465. 
rerum mortalium an. 13, 19. mentem mortalia tangunt Aen. 1, 462. 



— 31 — 

saltusqne indogine cingunt Aen. 4, 121. velut indagine an. 

13, 42. 
concessum Caveae an. 13, 54. Lucr. 4, 78. Caveae concessum 

Aen. 5, 340. 
ira cladis an. 13, 57. ereptae virginis ira Aen. 2, 413. 
in longum an. 14, 4. in longum ducis amores Verg. Eel. 9, 56. 
adolere aras an. 14, 30. 1 ^ . -07 * 7 71 

altaria adolentur H. 2, 3. J 

saxa ac faces an. 14, 45. faces et saxa volant Aen. 1, 150. 
pabulo attrito an. 15, 16. j 

attritis opibus H. 1, 10. / attritxis vomer Verg. Geo. 1, 146. 
attritis rebus H. 2, 56. J 
sui muneris an. 15, 52. totum mnneris hoc tui est Hor. Od. 

4, 3, 21. 
rapit = raptim ducit an. 15, 8. mille rapit populos Aen. 7, 725. 
pars .... erit an. 15, 72. quorum pars magna fui Aen. 2, 6. 
miscuerunt manus an. 2, 15. Prop. 2, 27, 8. 
misere ictus Agr. 36. Miscent proelia Verg. Geo. 2, 282. 
quae regnantur H. 1, 16. in quantum Germani regnatur an. 

13, 54. regnate per arva Aen. 6, 793. 
reliquias .... sectionum H. 1, 90. an. 5, 20. reliquiae Da- 

namn Aen. 1, 30. 
speculatorum lecta corpora H. 2, 11. lectissima matrum cor- 
pora Aen. 8, 272. 
barbarum tegimen H. 2, 20. barbara tegmina Aen. 11, 777. 
seditionibus potens H. 2, 86. seditione potens Aen. 11, 340. 
ingentibus telis horrentes H. 2, 88. horridus in jaculis et 

pelle Aen. 5, 37. 

recenscaede vestigia H. 3, 19. 1 , ji^^a.^o^kf; 

.^ . .f TT o rrr, ? recentem caede locum Aen. 9, 4, 00. 
recens victoria miles H. 3, 77. J 

omne imagine mortium H. 3, 18. plurima mortis imago Aen. 

2, 369. 
nova laborum facies H. 3, 30. laborum facies Aen. 6, 103. 
gravia auro . . . dona H. 3, 32. dona dehinc auro gravia 

Aen. 
in ignem considerent H. 3, 32. considere in ignis Aen. 2, 

624; 9, 145. 
terret solitudo H. 3, 84. ipsa silentia terrent Aen. 2, 755. 
altius expediam H. 4, 12. Altus omnem expediam Verg. 

Geor. 4, 286. 



— 32 — 

C. Taoitns' Probable Debt to Vergil. 

I, Substantival use of adjectives. 
In Tacitus we find that the substantival use of adjectives, 
particularly in the neuter singular and plural, is more frequent 
than in the classics. This use is closely paralleled in Vergil. 

populi Romani prospera an. 1, 1. H. 3, 13. A. 27. an. 14, 

38; 1, 64. 
vel adversa an. 1, 1; 3, 15. A. 27. H. 4, 52. 
per conciliabula et coetus seditiosa an. 3, 40. 
quin et femina inlustres informia meditari an. 14, 15. 
diverso terrarum destineri an. 3, 59; 1, 47; 6, 33; 13, 15. 
adire municipia obscuro diei an. 2, 39. H. 2, 14; 1, 22. an. 

4, 58. 
incerta belli metueris an. 4, 23; 2, 39; 3, 54. H. 1, 26: 2, 77. 
ambigua sonitus an. 4, 50. 
ambigua culti an. 11, 15. H. 2, 86. 
inter dubia G. 30. H. 3, 73; 2, 33. an. 12, 5. 
fortuita H. 2, 1 ; 2, 60 ; 4, 5. an. 15, 36. 
in tuta H. 3, 76; 1, 33. an. 1, 38; 12, 36, 
certa H. 4, 81. G. 30. 

avia an. 12, 20; 15, 11; 13, 37; 14, 23. H. 2, 85. 
inacessa H. 4, 50. 
angusta H. 3, 82; 4, 35. 
ardua H. 4, 70. an. 11, 9. 
lubrica H. 3, 82. 
edita an. 15, 27; 15, 38; 12, 56. 
obstantia H. 4, 81; an. 1, 50. 
opportuna an. 4, 24. 
amoena H. 3, 76. an. 3, 7. 

plana an. 2, 20; 15, 27; 4, 65. H. 3, 42. A. 12. 
subjecta an. 1, 64; 1, 65. 

aperta G. 16. an. 1, 56; 2, 17; 2, 23; 1, 51; 2, 47. 
profunda A. 25. an. 1, 70; 2, 24. 
secreta an. 4, 7; 3, 30; 4, 67; 15, 55. G. 19. 
saeva an. 1, 6; 3, 23; 15, 10; 11, 8; 4, 67. 
subita an. 14, 55. A. 37. H. 5, 13. 
occulta an. 2, 88. 
operta H. 3, 65. 
idonea an. 4, 5. 
vana an. 4, 59; 3, 50; 4, 9; 1, 9. 



— 38 — 

inania H. 3, 19; 15, 31; 3, 13. A. 6. H. 2, 69. 

falsa an. 2, 82; 16, 8; 2, 57. H. 2, 70; 4, 4. 

tacita an. 4, 41. 

longinqua A. 37, an. 15, 11 ; 6, 36; 3, 34. 

prima an. 2, 16; 6, 32; 4, 12. A. 18. H. 2, 11. 

extrema an. 1, 1. A. 28. H. 2, 47. 

summa A. 37. D. 10. H. 3, 29; 2, 75. an. 1, 68; 2, 17. 

praecipua an. 13, 13; 4, 40; 4, 41. 

reliqua an. 13, 50; 15, 16; 3, 54; 4, 51. 

cetera an. 1, 7; 3, 24; 6, 12; 14, 32. H. 3, 20. 

alia H. 3, 51; 2, 94. D. 38. an. 2, 72; 2, 30. H. 1, 86. 

pauca an. 1, 9; 3, 34. G. 43. H. 2, 4. D. 28. 

multa an. 1, 9; 12, 33; 5, 7; 3, 28. H. 5, 20. 

vera an. 4, 58; 3, 10; 16, 2; 1, 6. H. 4, 50. 

properantia = properatione an. 12, 20. 

n. Neuter adjectives or participles used substantively, 
found in Vergil. 
in convexo nemorum Aen. 1, 310. strata viarum 1, 422. sata 
laeta (segitis) 2, 306. Angusta viarum 2, 332. opaca lucorum 
2, 725. Namque avia cursu 2, 736. Caerula verrunt 3, 208. 
aulai medio libabant 3, 354. Si venis implet Apollo 3, 434. 
brevia 1, 111. inculta 1, 308. deserta 1, 384. extrema 1, 
577. prima 5, 194; 5, 388. lubrica 5, 335. ardua 5, 695. 
laeva 5, 825. secreta 6, 10. obscuris vera 6, 100. convexa 
6, 241; 6, 750. opaca 6, 633. avia 9, 58. mediis 10, 407. 
Strato surgit 3, 513. caeli medio 4, 184. rapto potitur 4, 
217. stratisque reponunt 4, 392. caeli convexa 4, 451. coeptis 
immanibus 4, 642. tranquillo 5, 127. summa 5, 180. sereni 
5, 851. operta 6, 140. ad convexa 6, 241. opaca 6, 633. 
convexa 6, 750. alta 6, 787. medio tecti 7, 59. deserta 7, 
404. medio Italiae 7, 563. rapto 7, 749; 9, 613. coeptis 8, 
15. pinguia 8, 63. medium caeli 8, 63. ardua 8, 221. parto 
8, 317. extrema 8, 333. alta 9, 81. ima 9, 120. medio 9, 
230. ausis 9, 281. audacibus adnue coeptis 9, 625. Aevomque 
10, 235. convexa 10, 251. 

III. Transitive Accusative, 
recentissimum quodque vulnus pavens H. 3, 56. 
dum imminentium oblitus incerta pavet an. 5, 4. 
qui eadem pavebant an. 15, 11. 



— 34 — 

quid ita Marcellus judicium magistratuum pavesceret H. 4, 7. 

ne seditiosum exercitum pavescerent an. 1, 59. 

ne muliebre et fanaticum agmen pavescerent an. 14, 30. 

nee speciem adulantis expaveris H. 2, 76. 

caeli regem pavere sub antro Verg. Geo. 4, 152. 

IV. Compound verbs used by Tacitus with a simple accusative 
where a repitition of the preposition or a dative would 
be regular, 
ut ripam Euphratis accederet an. 2, 58. 
quia societatem nostram volentes accesserant an. 12, 31. 
ut quamque nationem accesserat an. 14, 35. 
ut quosque accesserat H. 3, 24. 
adcurrerent .... primas . . . pugionem an. 15, 53. 
ut quosque advectus erat an. 2, 45. 
pugnam aut vincula elapsi an. 1, 61. 
Pontum erumpens an. 12, 63. 

donee . minor . . . filius lubricum juventae exiret an. 6, 49. 
qui cognitionem intervenerant an. 3, 23. 
inrepere paulatim militares animos adeundo an. 4, 2. 
Liviam uxorem Drusi praecellebat an. 2, 43. 
qui castra praejacet 12, 36. 
ludos circenses eburna effigies praeiret an. 2, 83. 
aliqua cetera imperia praemineret an. 3, 56. 
et saepe urbis adsidens extremam senectam an. 4, 58. 
adsidendo castellum an. 6, 43. 
quos inciderat H. 3, 29. 
adeoque improvisi castra involavere H. 4, 33. 
tum animos cupido involat an. 1, 49. 

qui nunc patientiam senis et segnitiam . . . insultet an. 4, 59, 
dum histrio cubiculum principis insultaverit an. 11, 28. 
id Tiberii animum altius penetravit an. 1, 69. 
Tiberium .... penetravit an. 3, 4. 
Mox iter L. Lucullo quondam penetratum an. 15, 27. 

V. Verbs which in Vergil become transitive ia process of 
composition, as the examples above in Tacitus, 
accestis scopulos Aen. 1, 201. 
evasisse viam Aen. 2, 731. 
juvat evasisse tot urbes Aen. 3, 282. 
sic fata gradus evaserat altos Aen. 4, 685. 



— 35 — 

evaditque celer ripam Aen. 6, 425. 

t€la . . . exit Aen. 5, 43S. 

vim .... exit Aen. 11, 750. 

innare lacus Aen. 6, 134. 

insistere limen Aen. G, 563. 

magnum .... circumvolvitur annum Aen. 3, 284. 

erumpere nubem Aen. 1, 580. 

cum muros adsidet hostis Aen. 11, 804. 

VI. Genitive with adjectives. 
This construction in Tacitus is worth attention on account 
of the boldness and frequency with which he uses it on the 
analogy of the Vergilian style. 

ne femina expertae fecunditatis an. 12, 2. sed veterem exper- 
tumque belli H. 4, 76. ingens animi an. 1, 69. ingens rerum 
H. 4, 66. diversus animi H. 4, 84. fallax amicitiae an. 16, 
32. vetus operis ac laboris an. 1, 20. anxius potentiae an. 
4, 12. morum non spemendus an. 14, 40. virtutem sterilis 
H. 1, 3. praecipiens circumveniendi an. 6, 4. insolens obse- 
quii H. 1, 87; 2, 88. an. 6, 34. manifestus delecti an. 2, 85; 

13, 26; 4, 53; 13, 23; 12, 51. ferox linguae H. I, 35. atrox 
odii an. 12, 22. ferox animi an. 1, 32 ; 1, 69. furandi melior 
an. 3, 74. modicum voluptatum an. 2, 73. pecuniae modicus 
an. 3, 72. modicus dignationis an. 4, 52. modicus originis 
an. 6, 39. occultus odii an. 4, 7. occultus consilii an. 6, 36. 
recti pervicax H. 4, 5. pervicax irae an, 4, 53. eloquentiae 
ac fidei praeclarus an. 4, 34. Ceterum animorum provinciae 
prudens A. 19. Celsus doli prudens repressit suos H. 2 25. 
atque ille prudens moderandi an. 3, 69. rerum vestrarum 
providum an. 4, 38. Providus futurorum an. 6, 46. futuri 
improvidus H. 1, 88. improvidus consilii H. 3, 56. praestan- 
tissimus sapientiae an. 6, 6. procax otii an. 13, 46. segnis 
laborum an. 14, 33. occasionum . . . segnis an. 16, 14. vi- 
rium et opium validam H. 2, 19. orandi vahdus an. 4, 21. 
animi vahdus an. 15, 53. Vetus loci H. 2, 14. Veteres mili- 
tiae H. 4, 20. Vetus operis an. 1, 20. vetus regnandi H. 5, 

14. exitii certus an. 1, 27. incerta ultionis an. 2, 75. po- 
tentiae securus an. 3, 28. ambiguus imperandi an. 1, 7. im- 
piger militiae an. 3, 48. sui auxins an. 4, 59. incertus animi 
an. 6, 46. H. 3, 55. operum ignavis an. 11, 18. irae pro- 
perum an. 11, 26. maeroris immodicus an. 15, 23. incertus 

3* 



— 36 — 

futuri D. 13. patientissimus veri D. 8. pauca campestrum 
G. 43. secretiora Germaniae G. 41. Extrema Galliarum H. 
4, 28. praescium periculorum an. 6, 21. occultus odii an. 4, 
7; 6, 36. contumeliarum insolentes an. 6, 31. audiendi .... 
insolens an. 13, 67, bellorum insolens H, 1, 87. arborum 
inpatiens G. 5. spei inpatiens H. 2, 40. inpatiens solis pul- 
veris H. 2, 99. societatis inpatiens an. 2, 64. inpatiens 
aemuli an. 4, 3. obsequi inpatientes an. 4, 72. aequi inpa- 
tiens an. 6, 25. obsidionis impatientes an. 12, 30. 

VII. The following similar construction in Vergil is to be 

noted, 
dives opum Aen. 1, 4; 2, 22. fessi rerum 1, 178. ditissimus 
agri 1, 343; 10, 563. laetissimus umbrae 1, 441. integer 
aevi 2, 638. aevi maturus 5, 73. omnium egenos 1, 599. 
inops animi 4, 300. veri effeta 7, 440. veni vana 10, 630. 
fortunatus laborum 11, 416. indigenus avorum 12, 649. seri 
studiorum expertos belli 10, 173. laevique patens 11, 40. 

tui fidissima 12, 659. fidens animi 2, 61. fidus animi 
servantissimus aequi 2, 427. patieus pericli 10, 610. nimbo- 

rum tempestatum — — potentatem 10, 225. 

The above usage is in part a Graecism, and in part an 
extension of a similar construction in prose, used by Vergil, 
the extension being particularly that of the objective genitive. 

VIII. Simple for Compound Verbs. 
The use of simple for compound verbs is purely a poetical 
one. Not only is it an archaism, but it is also a means of 
arriving at variety and an avoidance of the stiffness of prosaic 
expression. 

vocare = provocare G. 14. ponunt = deponunt G. 27. 
pellere = depellere D. 17. flexisse = deflexisse D. 19. 
cluditur = includitur D. 30. finiebatur = definiebatur D. 38. 
colunt = incolunt G. 16. vocare = provocare G. 14. H. 4, 80. 
vocent = provocent H 5, 25. posuere = deposuere A. 20. 
pensavit = compensavit D. 40. trahuntur = detrahuntur A. 12. 
pensare = compensare A. 22. firmerant = confirmerant H. 2, 10. 
rapere = deripere H. 2, 12. sistere = consistere H. 3, 21. 
ciebat := exciebat H. 3, 24. 
pensabantur = compensabantur H. 3, 26. 
judicatur := dejudicatur H. 3, 70. sperso := adsperso H. 5, 6. 



— 37 — 

vocent = provocent H. 5, 25. premi = oppremi an. 1(3, 9. 

haurentium = exhaurentium an. 16, 18. 

egerat = coegerat an. 16, 34, 

ceraerent = decernerent an. 15, 15. 

premunt = reprimunt an. 15, 64; 3, 6; 11, 2; 14, 5, 

premi = oppremi an. 16, 9. pressus = oppressus an. 14, 5. 

Tocans = invocans an. 13, 55. 

raperentur = eriperentur an. 13, 16. 

quaesivisset = acquaesivisset an. 13, 15. 

quaesitam = conquisitam an. 13, 7. rapi = deripi an. 13, 6. 

noscebantur = cognoscebantur. 

advertare = animadvertere an. 12, 51; 2, 32; 4, 54. 

ferre = proferre an. 12, 4; 6, 49. vectum = advectmn an. 11, 14. 

juta = adjuta an. 14, 4. noscuntur = adnoscuntiir an. 4, 35. 

firmare = adfirmare an. 6, 6. noscerent = adnoscerent an. 2, 28. 

solarentur = insolescerentur an. 1, 14. 

ardescunt =: exardescunt an, 16, 29. situm = positum an. 1, 39. 

firmare = adfirmare an. 6, 6. noscerent = adnoscerent H. 4, 40. 

vexisse = provexisse an. 14, 54. movetar = removetur an, 14, 60. 

motus = remotus an, 14, 32. pressus = repressus an. 14, 64. 

cemerent=decernerent an.15,15. premunt =repremunt an.15,64. 

premi = opprimi an. 16, 9. rapere = deripere H. 2, 12. 

posuit = proposuit an. 1, 7; 4, 27. 

ardescunt = exardescunt an. 1, 32. firmare = adfirmare an. 1, 81. 

versa = eversa an. 2, 42. 

IX. Simple for Compound Verbs in Vergil. 

The following cases of simple for compound verbs may be 
noted in Vergil. 

duco = produce Aen. 2, 641; 4, 560. eo = exeo 1, 246; 2, 27. 

eo = abeo 5, 269. fero = aufero 10, 652; 12, 285. 

fero = adfero 6, 503. fero = profero 9, 338. fero = infero 10, 797. 

figo = transfigo 5, 544. fundo = effundo 6, 440. 

lustro = inlustro 4, 6 ; 4, 607. mitto = dimitto 1, 203. 

mitto = inmitto 12, 629. nego = abnego 4, 428. 

pono = depono 1, 173; 1, 291; 1, 302; 11, 830; 12, 209. 

pono = impono 1, 706; 4, 602. pono = compono 8, 639. 

premo = opprimo 3, 47. primo = comprimo 6, 155. 

quaero = inquaero 6, 868. rumpo = abrumpo 3, 580; 12, 669. 

ruo = proruo 1, 83. ruo = eruo 1, 35; 1, 85. sisto ^ consisto 3, 7. 



— 38 — 

temno = contemno 1, 542. teneo = retineo 10, 802; 12, 819. 
voco = revoco 6, 471. volvo = evolvo 1, 9; 1, 22; 1, 262. 

It may be observed that the poetical use of simple for 
compound verbs is rare in the minor works of Tacitus, not 
common in the Histories, but abundant in the Annals. 

X. Intransitive use of verbs usually transitive. 
This use is due to the elipsis of an accusative and hence 
transitive verbs are treated as intransitive, 
circumfundit eques fortemque pedites invasere an. 3, 46. 
praefectum apud Siluras . . . relictas circumfundit 

an. 12, 38. 
Tunc a veneratione Augusti orsus flexit ad victorias an. 1, 34. 
dein redditas absentiae causis . . . vagis flexit ad graviora 

an. 6, 15. 
ad providentiam sapientiamque flexit an. 13, 3. 
arguebatur in ambitionem flexisse an. 4, 37. 
hue flexit an. 4, 41. 
a Formiis movere an. 15, 46. 

postquam mutabat aestus .... quo ventus ferebat an. 2, 23. 
si ita ferret an. 3, 15. H. 2, 44. 
ilia rupturas an. 2, 17. 
Si una alterave civitas turbet an. 3, 47. 
Cum repente turbare fortuna coepit an. 4, 1. 
alio vertunt atque una tres aquilas locant an. 1, 18. 

XI. The follovrtng cases occur in Vergil, 
incumbuere mari Aen. 1, 84. incumbens arae 2, 514. 
urgenti incumbere vellet 2, 653. tum vero Teucri incumbunt 4, 397. 
turn prora avertit et undis 1, 104. et avertus rosea ... 1, 402. 
et jam nox . . . praecipitat 2, 9. praecipitant senis 4, 251. 
dum praecipitare potestas? 4, 565. fors siqua tulisset 2, 94. 
cunctis insinuat pavor 2, 229. accingunt omnes operi 2, 235. 
non .... abstinuit 2, 534. transmittunt cursu 4, 154. 
quo proripis? 5, 741. 

XII. Infinitive of purpose, 
donee uotro ambiretur . . . consulatum accipere an. 2, 43. 

ire in aciem flagrabant H. 2, 46. 

Aemulabantur inlicere H. 2, 62. 

inquietare , . , , morari .... foedari amplectabantur H. 3, 84. 



— 39 — 

componunt . . , concire an. 3, 40. 
inducunt sententiam expromere an. 12, 9. 

inlectus ducere uxorem an. 2, 37. 

inliciebantur spiritus perstimulare an. 4, 12. 

ergo nuntiat patri obicere spem an. 16, 11. 

scribitur .... obsequi an. 15, 25. 

scripsitque .... componere an. 12, 29. 

impulerat . . . inlicere an. 6, 45; 13, 19; 14, 60. H- 3, 43. 

hortatur capessere an. 11, 16. pepigere ulcisci an. 11, 9; 14,31. 

adegit mittere an. 11, 10. oravit . . . adire an. 11, 32; 6, 2. 

inducunt .... expromere an. 12, 9. deduci impetrat an. 12, 27. 

monet celerare an. 12, 46. sumere cohortatur an. 12, 49. 

repetere dehortatus est an. 3, 16. 

hortatur capessere an. 11, 16. orabant cavere an. 13, 13. 

impulit ire an. 13, 19. suadit . . . agredi an. 13, 37. 

suasurus .... omittere an. 16, 9; 13, 37; 15, 63; 3, 53. 

perpulit .... suscipere an. 13, 55; 6, 33. 

proniittere subegit an. 14, 14; 14, 26; 1, 39. 

amittere subegit an. 14, 26. resumere . . . pepigerant an. 14, 31. 

scribitur .... obsequi an. 15, 25. 

scripsit componere an. 12, 29. 

operire imperavit an. 15, 28. ire . . . imperavit an. 2, 25. 

hortarentur . . . pergere an. 15, 59. 

suadet abscidere an. 15, 63. amari meruisti an. 15, 67. 

pati mereretur an. 14, 48. suadenti abrumpere an. 16, 9. 
mutare quaerebant G. 2. nee deerat elicere H. 3, 58. 
persuaseris arare G. 14. dabaturque diserere an. 4, 6. 
apto insumere D. 9. impulerat resumere et miscere H. 3, 4. 
praescriptum fuisse an. 6, 23. datum deducere 12, 11. 
visere dabatur 6, 19. negotio dato . . . discemere an. 6, 12; 2, 55- 
refellere dabatur 3, 67. admonuit dicere Agr. 25. 
gaudebant iterare H. 3, 11. dabatur eludere 3, 67. 
defendere daretur 4, 60. orabat deligere 6,2; 11, 32; 12, 9: 13, 13. 

Xni. Some examples from Vergil, 
funemque manu contingere gaudent Aen. 2, 239. 
non nos aut .... populare venimus aut . . . vertere 1, 527. 
dederatque comam diffundere ventis 1, 319. 
avidi conjungere dextras ardebant 1, 514. 
ardemus scitari et quaerere causas 2, 105. 
nee revocare situs aut jungere carmina curat 3, 451. 



— 40 — 

instaurati animi .... succurere tectis 2, 451. 
hoc regnum . . . esse . . . jam turn tendit 1, 17. 
tendit divellere nodos 2, 220. 

convellere insequor et . . . temptare 3, 31. 

necque vincere certo 5, 194. 

instant — ducere — moliri — subvolere — optare — con- 

cludere — 1, 423—5. 
instant eruere 2, 627—8. temptat praevertere 1, 721. 
temptant .... foedare 3, 240 — 1. certabantque inludere 2, 64. 
fatale adgressi sacrato avellere templo 2, 165. 
convellere .... insequor 3, 31—2. 

ne trepidate meas defendere navis 9, 114. 

celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet 1, 357. 

duci intra miiros hortatur et arce locari 2, 33. 

reddi sibi poscit honorem 5, 342. 

tot volvere casus .... tot adire labores . . . impulerit 1, 9. 

festinare fugam tortosque incidere funis . . . stimulat 4, 575. 

metus acer agit quocumque rudentis excutere 3, 682. 

impulerat foedare latebras 2, 55. 

cernere letum fecisti 2, 538 — 9. 

XIV. Infinitives with adjectives. 
In prose Paratus is the only adjective used freely with 
the infinitive. Further extension of this usage is found in the 
poets, due to Greek influence. Such a construction is confined 
to participles of verbs or adjectives derived from such verbs, 
and with other adjectives expressing volition or fitness etc. 
Muta ista et inanima intercidere ac reparari H. 1, 84. 
sed certus procul urbe degere an. 4, 57. 
et quoque facinore properus clarescere an. 4, 52. 
atrox ac dissentire manifestus an. 2, 57. 
satis manifestus est ... . accingi D. 19. 
non falso suspectus bellum malle H. 4, 34. 

peritus obsequi eritusque miscere Agr. 8. 

facilis corrumpi H. 4, 39. 

terris oriri sueta patiens frugum Agr. 12. 

factus natura .... velare odium an. 14, 56. 

offendere obnoxium D. 10. 

constantus probasse D. 18. 

significasse contentus D. 23. 

detracasse contentus D. 26. 



— 41 — 

XV. Vergil has the follomng cases. 

certa . . . mori Aen. 4, 564. certari .... parati 5, 108. 
maior .... videri 6, 49. praevertere 7, 806 — 7. 

felicior unguere .... armare 9, 772 — 3. 

avidus confundere 12, 290. nescia vinci pectora 12, 527. 
praeustantior .... ciere 6, 164. 

XVI. Reflexive Verbs. 

in questus lacrimas vota effundi an. 1, 11. 
ut effusi in lacrimas saeva et . . . . clamitarent an. 3, 23. 
et effusum in lacrimas senatum .... erexit an. 4, 8. 
pares validaeque miscentur Germ. 20. 

Statim e somno lavantar Germ. 22. 

ac jam pridem probatis adgregantur Germ. 13. 

per human evolvuntur Germ. 39. 

Fennosque silvarum ac montium eregitur Ger. 46. 

Tiberii genua advolveretur an. 1, 13. 

et hostes ad occasionem verterentur Agr. 18. 

maiorem ad spem adcingi an. 11, 28. 

quasi per virtutem dari honoratique agere an. 14, 15. 

nee quidquam prius imbuuentur H. 5, 5. 

falsa exterritus an. 4, 28. 

Arguitur .... revincebatur an. 6, 5. 

bracas indutus H, 2, 20. 

Aram posuit expressam an. 3, 74. 

XVII. Reflexive Verbs in Vergil. 

The conception of the use of the passive forms in a middle 
sense is found in the poets and is a suggestion from the Greek 
middle voice. 

et Libyae vertuntur ad oras Aen. 1, 158. 
implentur veteris bacchi pinguisque ferinae 1, 215. 
ipse urbem repeto et ciugor fulgentibus armis 2, 749. 
ruuntque effusi carcere currus 5, 145. circumfundimur 2, 383- 
expedior 2, 633. Aperitur 3, 275. inferar 4, 545. 
reddar 6, 545. eripiare 12, 948. imponere 2, 707. 
proruptus 1, 246; 7, 459. circumfusu 2, 64. protecti 2, 444. 
eflfusus 5, 145; 10, 803. converse 9, 724. 



— 42 — 

XVIII. Greek Accusative. 
This, as the terminology indicates, is a Greek construction, 
borrowed by the poets. The prose construction would be the 
ablative, since this accusative denotes a specified quality in 
connection with a verb or adjective, 
contectus humeros an. 2, 13. clari genus an. 6, 9. 
adlevatur animum an. 6, 43. cetera degenerem 6, 42. 
frontem .... tergum .... latera .... munitus an. 1, 50. 
nudus brachia ac lacertos G. 17. 
cetera egregius an. 14, 49. diversa excusantibus 3, 11. 
magnitudinem negotiorum an. 5, 2. 
falsum remdens vultu an. 4, 60. 

quae vicerant an. 12, 60. neutraque perveniret an. 14, 14. 
cetera intecta G. 17. bracas indutus H. 2, 20. 
manum aeger H. 4, 81. animum vultumque conversis H. 1, 85. 
frontem tergaque ac latus tuti H. 4, 20. 
oblitus faciem suo cruore an. 2, 17. 
praeriguisse manus an. 13, 35. frigidus jam artus an. 15, 64. 

XIX. Vergil uses the Greek Accusative. 
Nuda genu 1, 320. nudus membra 8, 425. 
OS umerosque similis 1, 589. sacra comam 7, 60. 
capita . . . corusci 9, 678. saucius . . . pectus 12, 5. 
saucius ora 12, 652. colla tumentum 2, 381. 
Nigrantis terga 5, 97. flaventem .... malas 10, 324. 
animum arrecti 1, 579. mentem . , . pressus 3, 47. 
membra victus 9, 337. comam . . . nutat 2, 629. 
vultum .... movetur 6, 470. oculos suffusa 1, 228. 
sinus collecta 1, 320. tunsae pectora palmis 1, 481. 
vultum demissa 1, 561. faciem mutatus et ora 1, 658. 
oculos suffecti 2, 210. circum terga dati 2, 218 — 9. 

perfusus vittas 2, 221. exuvias indutus 2, 275. 

«rinem .... solutae 3, 65. redimitus tempora 3, 81. 

caudas .... commissa 3, 428. Chlamydem circumdata 4, 137. 

mentum crinem .... subnexus 4, 216 — 7. 

crinis effusa 4, 509. exuta pedem 4, 518, 589, 590. 
interfusa genas 4, 644. os impressa toro 4, 659. 
defixus lumnia 6, 156. picti scuta 7, 796. 
adsueta manus 7, 806. protecti corpora 8, 662. 
fusus barbam 10, 838. thoraca indutus 11, 487. 



— 43 — 

oculos fixus 11, 507. pictus .... tunicas 11, 777. 

conversi lumina 12, 172. per pedes trajectus lora 2, 273. 
maniis . . . revinctum 2, 57. innexa pedem 5, 511. 

XX. The Accusative towards which motion takes place. This 

use, ordinarily confined to the names of cities, towns and small 

islands, and to domus and rus, is given a wider latitude by 

Tacitus after the manner of the poets. 

evadere angustias an. 5, 10; 8, 14. A. 33, 44. 

Hiberos pervadit an. 12, 51. incedere locum an. 16, 1; 14, 15. 

Campos propinquabant an. 12, 13. eniti agerem an. 2, 20. 

proximus quisque regem vi etc. 15, 15. 

egredi tentoria an. 1, 61; 4, 64. H. 3, 59. 

ductus uude Caugos 12, 32. Aventium defertur H. 3, 84. 

exire lubricum an. 6, 49. non ibo infitias an. 15, 2. 

elabi pugnam an. 1, 61. accedere lentoria H. 2, 27. 

ripam accedere H. 1, 82. an. 14, 11. 

oppidum irrumperere A. 36. H, 3, 18. 

incursare Germaniam H. 4, 33. an. 1, 49. 

involare castra H. 4, 81. an 13, 6. advolvi genua. 

XXI. Examples from Vergil. 

Italiam litora 1, 2. locos 1, 365. 

alias . . . oras 1, 512; 3, 601. limina 6, 696. 
tumulum . . . sedem 2, 742. finis Italos 3, 440. 

XXn. Partitive or Quasi Partitive Genitive. 
The number of such genitives is characteristic of Tacitus, 
"as also the frequency with which the partitive idea is almost 
altogether lost sight of, and the genitive equivalent to a simple 
adjective as in poetry.'' 

a) After neuter singular adjectives, 
innudo paludum an. 1, 61. lubrico paludum 1, 65. 
in prominenti litoris 1, 53. post multum vulnerum 12, 56. 
eo loci an. 4, 4. id solitudinis an. 11, 32. 
extremum inopiae Agr. 38. extremo paludis H. 5, 18. 
extreme Anni an. 6, 27. lubrico itinerum H. 1, 79. 
lubricum juventae an. 6, 49. 

lubricum adulescentulae an. 14, 56. Sero diei an. 2, 21. 
Medium diei an. 11, 21; 12, 69; 14, 2. H. 1, 62; 3, 11. 



— 44 — 

medio temporis H. 2, 53. an. 14, 53. 

medio montium an. 1, 64. obscurum noctis H. 2, 14. 

certo anni H. 5, 6. multo jam noctis H. 3, 79. 

reliquo noctis an. 14, 10. minimo temporis H. 3, 83. 

obscuro diei an. 2, 39. obscuro lucis H. 4, 50. 

asperrimo hiemis an. 3, 5. 

secretum Asiae H. 1, 10. Agr. 25. H. 2, 100. 

secreto loci an. 4, 41; 4, 57. 

celeberrimo fori an. 4, 67. 

in extremo ponticae orae H. 3, 47. diverse terrarum an. 3, 59. 

in proximo Campaniae an. 4, 74. 

b) After neuter plural adjectives, 
media campi Agri. 35. subita belli Agri. 37. 
orientis secreta Agr. 44. secretiora Germaniae G. 41. 
pauca campestrium G. 43. laeva maris H. 2, 2. 
novissima Libyae H. 5, 2. alia honorum an. 1, 9. 
extrema Asiae an. 2, 54. imperii extrema an. 4, 74. 
cuncta camporum H. 5, 10. cuncta curarum an. 3, 35. 
reliqua locus an. 12, 56. praecipua rerum an. 4, 40. 
tacita suspicionum an. 4, 41. 

simulationum falsa an. 6, 45. summa imperii an. 11, 8. 
ad summa militiae H. 2, 75. per avia Moesiae H. 2, 85. 
avia Armeniae an. 13, 37. vana rumoris an. 4, 59. 
inania belli H. 2, 69. silvarum ac montium profunda Ag. 25. 
fluctuum adversa A. 25. domum adversa an. 3, 24. 
in aperta Oceani an. 2, 23. offensorum operta H. 3, 65. 
inculta montium an. 1, 17. occulta saltuum an. 1, 61. 
prima silvarum an. 2, 16. prima consiliorum H. 2, 11. 
prima rerum H. 2, 46. prominentia montium an. 2, 16. 
amoena Asiae an. 3, 7. amoena litorum H. 3, 76. 
longinqua imperii an. 3, 34. 
in longinqua et contermina Scythiae an. 6, 36. 
dubiis proeliorum H. 2, 33. incerta respondentium 14, 8 
fortuita fraudi suae H. 2, 60. fortuita belli H. 4, 23. 
angusta et lubrica viarum H. 3, 82. viarum angusta H. 4, 35. 
derepta et avia sequentis an. 4, 45, montium editis an. 4, 46. 
montium edita an 12, 56. altiora murorum H. 2, 22. 
obstantia silvarum an. 1, 50. 
proxima municipiorum an. 15, 58. 
proxima litorum H. 3, 42. 



— 45 — 

XXIII. Partitive or Quasi Partitive in Vergil, 
a) Adjectives in the singalar. 
quod cumque hoc regni Aen. 1, 78. Aulai medio 3, 354. 
tecti medio 7, 59. 

b) Adjectives in the plural. 
Strata vianim 1, 422. opaca lucorum 2, 725. 
angusta viarum 6, 633. ardua terrarum 5, 695. 
Libyae deserta 1, 384. 

XXIV. Dative of Indirect Object with implied local relation, 

where the Ablative with a preposition would be more usual, is 

adopted chiefly from the poets and Livy. 

legionibus abstraheret an. 2, 5. cui . . . . excursari an. 1, 2. 
morti eximant an. 1, 48. extractum custodiae an. 6, 23. 
proripuit . . . custodibns an. 4, 45. livere iis an. 13, 42. 
illaborare domibus G. 46. imgemere agris G. 46. 
nihil libidini exceptum A. 15. eximere morti an. 1, 48. 
respondenti reticens an. 14, 49. 
sublatum capiti diadema an. 15, 29. 

XXV. Parallel Construction in Vergil. 
Excipiam sorti Aen. 9, 271. Memori . . . eximet Aen. 9, 448. 
silici scintillam excudit Aen. 1, 174. mihi . . . eripuit 2, 735. 
siculo latus abscidit Aen. 3, 418. 

cui lumen ademptum 3, 658. oculos furare labori Aen. 5, 845. 
desistere pugnae Aen. 10, 441. 

XXVI. The dative of a noun so closely connected with another 
that a genitive would be expected is frequent in the poets. 

rector juveni an. 1, 24. paci firmator an. 2, 46. 

suffugium hiemi et receptaculum frugibus G. 16. 

subsidia dominationi an. 1, 3. subsidium rei familiari an. 15, 33. 

plures seditioni duces an. 1, 22. 

virtuti pretium an. 3, 40. resumendae libertati an. 3, 40. 

finem bello an. 2, 21. initium hello H. 1, 67. 

liberis tutor an. 2, 67. Serano fautores an. 4, 60. 

Tibeiio auxiliator an. 6, 43. praedam victoribus an. 4, 76. 

id genti caput an. 1, 56. Genti Caput H. 5, 8. 

id rex Hiberis an. 11, 8. Dniso proavus an. 2, 43. 



— 46 — 

causas bello an. 2, 64. causam seditioni H. 4, 19. 
custos saluti an. 3, 14. corpori custodes an. 6, 36. 
Ministri sceleribus an. 6, 36. ministros bello H. 1, 88. 
bello ministra an. 4, 22. pignus societati an. 4, 61. 
dona templis an. 2, 60. Othoni .... comes H. 1, 22. 
Antonio Comes an. 3, 6. Avo Comes an. 3, 6. 
Materiam sceleri an. 12, 22. plebi tribunus an. 16, 26. 
initia causasque imperio H. 2, 1. 

XXVn. Some Vergilian Passages. 

Scaenis futuris Aen. 1, 429. 

aerea cui gradibus surgebant limina Aen. 1, 448. 

huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur per terram Aen. 1, 477. 

populis . . . regnatorem Aen. 2, 556 — 7. 

XXVni. Dative of Agent. 
Tacitus like the poets couples this dative freely with any 
passive form without restriction to the gerundive or passive 
participles or adjectives in bills, and without any notion of the 
interest of the agent. 
Sibi adspici an. 1, 17. 

propinquis removerentur an. 2, 50. 

Claris scriptoribus memorata sunt an. 1, 1. 

Aelia Paetino Narcisso fovebantur an. 12, 1. 

verum audita scriptaque senioribus tradam an, 11, 27. 

pluribus curabatur an. 14, 58. 

Missi .... Paeto nuntii an. 15, 14. 

Ulixi consecratam G. 3. Aedesque .... Eomulo an. 15, 41. 

Nullas Germanorum popuhs urbes habitari G. 16. 

Gallis in meridiem inspicitur Ag. 10. 

Tiberio implicabantur an. 1, 11. 

mihi suadatum -est D. 4. oculis spectanda D. 8. 

Herennio Senecioni . . . laudati essent Agr. 2. 

XXIX. In Vergil. 
Vetor fatis Aen. 1, 39. cunctis . . . inprovisus Aen. 1, 594. 
lectis . . . comitatus Aen. 9, 48. miserae dilectus Aen. 1, 44. 
dilecta sorori Aen, 4, 31, dilectus Julo 5, 569. 
neque cemitur ulli Aen. 1, 440. 
videri caelicolis Aen, 2, 591. nulli visa 5, 610. 
Danais . . . , refixum Aen. 5, 560. 



— 47 — 

XXX. The dative after compound verbs where the accusative 
with a preposition would be the usual construction is also 
poetical and is found frequently in Tacitus. 
Appulsas litori naves H. 4, 84. 
provolvi genibus an. 11, 30; 12, 18; 14, 61. 
properantibus Blaesus advenit an. 1, 18. 
jamque pectori usque adcreverat an. 1, 19. 
centurionem morti deposcit an. 1, 23. 
inecessit itineri et proelio an. 1, 51. 
qui tribute aderant an. 4, 72. excubiis adest an. 12, 69. 
Nee quemquam exemplo adsumo an. 6, 8. 
urbium excidiis reperta H. 3, 84. 

retinebatur adhuc terrori H. 2, 10. inducere penatibus an. 5, L 
rupibus inductus an. 6, 21. imperatoris fastigio an. 14, 61. 
factum est senatus consultum ultioni juxta et securitate an. 13, 2U 
viae pariter et pugnae an. 13, 40. 

alii matrimonio se obstruxisse an. 15, 53. honori an. 2, 7. 
verboribus an. 13, 26. 

XXXI. The above construction is found only in verse in 
Classical times and is verry common in Vergil, 
inferret .... Latio Aen. 1, 6. appulit oris Aen. 1, 377; 3, 338, 
adnavimus oris Aen. 1, 538. 

includunt lateri Aen. 2, 19. demisere neci Aen. 2, 85. 

demittimus Oreo Aen. 2, 398. Miserit Oreo Aen. 9, 785. 

Lateri abdidit Aen. 2, 553. Caelo .... tendit Aen. 2, 288. 

it clamor caelo Aen. 5, 451. libo .... focis Aen. 3, 177. 

venit medio Aen. 3, 417; 4, 392; 4, 613. decensusAverno Aen. 6, 126. 

Caelo .... educere Aen. 6, 178; 2, 186; 6, 297. 

terrae dejecerat Aen. 10, 546. deturbet terrae Aen. 10, 555. 

Alto prospiciens Aen. 1, 126. 

prospectum .... pelago Aen. 1, 181; 1, 226. 

effusi lacrimis Aen. 2, 651. 

XXXn. Dative of Purpose. 
The dative of purpose is probably a psychological suggestion 
of the dative of limit: while the latter indicates the end of 
physical activity, the former would seem to indicate the limit 
of man's purpose. The dative of purpose is found in prose in 
Military Expressions and in the double dative construction. But 
in Tacitus, as in poetry, it is much more freely used. 



— 48 — 

custodiae adposito an. 1, 6. qui tribute aderant an. 4, 72. 
opprimeudo bello an. 11, 1. quibus abluendis an. 11, 2. 
rei publicae obtentui sumpta an. 1, 10. 

alii copora abiecta ostentui an. 1, 29. 

equos venatui adornatos sistrant an. 12, 13. 

ostentui dehonestamento an. 12, 14. 

subsidio . . . victores an. 12, 29. 

-quod adquaerendis vulgi studiis edebatur 12, 41. 

quae more militiae excubiis adest an. 12, 69. 

tntioni securitate an. 13,32. viae pariter et pugnae an. 13,40. 

incessit itineri et proelio an. 1, 51. 

firmando praesidio an, 13, 41. capessendo bello an. 13, 41. 

trans montem Tauram reciperandis an. 15, 8. 

expediri tamen itineri an. 15, 10. 

obtenendae .... Armeniae an. 15, 14. 

Augendis .... bonis an. 16, 1. morti deposcit an. 1, 23. 

inrisui H. 1, 7. an. 14, 39. derisui Agr. 39. 

deridiculo an. 3, 57. despectu H. 4, 57. metui an. 4, 69. 

obtentui H. 1, 49. H. 2, 14. H. 3, 35. 

ostentui an. 12, 14; 15, 29; 15, 64. Usui H. 1, 79. an. 11, 14. 

potui G. 23. victui vestitui G. 46. 

veno dare an. 4, 1. veno posita an. 14, 15. 

indutui gerere an. 16, 4. cum visui . . . praeberetur an. 12, 21. 

cum ille equum placendo animi adomasset an. 6, 37. 

amici accedendis offensionibus callidi an. 2, 57. 

repertus est — nudus exercitando corpori an. 14, 59. 

XXXIII. Dative of Purpose in Vergil, 
optare locum tecto Aen. 1, 425. Collectam exilio Aen. 2, 798. 
optavit .... locum regno Aen. 3, 109. 

bello armantur equi Aen. 3, 540. rimaturque epulis Aen. 6, 599. 
excidio Libyae Aen. 1, 22. hospitio Teucris Aen. 1, 299. 

auxilio Aen. 5, 686, multis exitio Aen. 9, 315. 

An cordi Aen. 7, 325; 9, 615. 

XXXIV. Local Ablative. 
The use of the ablative without a preposition to denote place 
is a poetical construction and used freely by Tacitus not only 
with proper names but also with verbs signifying separation. 
The poets use the ablative very freely to denote the source or 
starting point of motion as well as separation in general. 



— 49 — 

Tumulo D. 13. an. 14, 10. piano H. 3, 19. 

toris D. 21. vicino H. 3, 38. loco H. 4, 84. 

Delo an. 3, 61. Eodem latere H. 3, 48. 

Saxo Seripho an. 4, 21. plauo H. 3, 19. 

Crepitudinibus an. 15, 37. sumo montium jugis H. 3, 77. 

lateribus aut fronte an. 15, 38. 

caelo terraque H. 1, 3. balneis an. 2, 16. 

suggestu H. 1, 55. an. 6, 37. 

colonia piano sita H. 3, 19. Italia an. 13, 25. 

vicino sita H. 3, 38. Armenia an. 13, 7. solido an. 5, 6. 

pontico mari an. 13, 39. Aequo Agr. 35. cubiculo an. 13, 44. 

artissimo . . . devortis an. 12, 63. an. 1, 64; 2, 52 ; 13, 38; 15, 29. 

medio H. 3, 16. H. 1, 68. an. 1, 61. an. 2, 52. Ag. 24. 

isdem hibernis H. 1, 55. theatro an. 14, 20. 

isdem tentoris H. 2, 45. novis bibernaculis an. 14, 38. 

finibus Frisiarum an. 1, 60. surburbano rure an. 15, 60. 

porta triumphali an. 1, 8. litore oceani an. 1, 63. 

structis moUibus an. 2, 60. toro an. 3, 5. 

saxis et aere an. 4, 43. campo aut litore an. 4, 74. 

XXXV. Similar Construction in Vergil. 

terris et alto Aen. 1, 3. vasto . . . antro Aen. 1, 52. 

celsa . . . arce Aen. 1, 56. Iliacis campis Aen. 1, 97. 

foribus Aen. 1, 505. media testudine Aen. 1, 505. 

umbris Aen. 1, 547. montibus Aen. 1, 607. 

templis 1, 632. Asylo Aen. 2, 761. humo Aen. 3, 3. 

imo .... gurgite Aen. 3, 421. jugo Aen. 3, 542. 

Erj-mantho Aen. 5, 448. alta mente Aen. 1, 26. 

fiammato . . . corde Aen. 1, 50. 

talis jactantem pectore curas Aen. 1, 227. Animis Aen. 1, 149. 

promissis maneas Aen. 2, 160. dictis . . . manacres Aen. 8, 643. 

ponto Aen. 1, 40. antro Aen. 1, 52. speluncis Aen. 1, 60. 

XXXVI. Ablative of Place Whence (without prep.). 

Armenia an. 1, 3. Etruria Lucania et Omni Italia an. 11, 24. 
Suria an. 13, 35. fuga impediverat an. 1, 39. 
progrediuntur contuberniis an. 1, 41. abire sedibus an. 12, 19. 
abhorrere talibus an. 1, 54; 14, 21. H. 5, 24. 
Italia deportarentur an. 14, 45. curia depromptum an. 6, 40. 
globo efiusa an. 2, 23. paludibus emersum an. 1, 65. 



— 50 — 

solo ac parietibus eruptae an. 2, 69. 

extractum cubile an. 1, 39; 15, 13. 

recens dolore et ira an. 1, 41. Aegypto an. 2, 69. 

testudine labi H. 3, 29. sublatum capite diadema an. 15, 29. 

profugus altaribus taurus H. 2, 56. prorumptus vagina an. 15, 54. 

cubiculoque pronimpit an. 13, 44; 15, 40. H. 4, 34. 

occursu prohibitus an. 16, 24. fuga empedire an. 1, 39. 

eradendum fastis an. 3, 17. albo senatoris erasit an. 4, 42. 

stipendiis recentes an. 15, 59. recentia caede vestigia an. 3, 19. 

recens praetura an. 4, 52. collibus an. 2, 17. 

XXXVn. Some Examples from Vergil. 

progredior portu Aen. 3, 300. toto proruptus Aen. 7, 459. 

Latio Aen. 1, 31. Italia Aen. 1, 38. finibus extoris Aen. 4, 616. 

montibus Aen. 6, 182. raptas . . . concessu Aen. 8, 635. 

cassum lumine Aen. 2, 85. carcere dolis Aen. 2, 44. 

morte resignat Aen. 4, 244. exspirantem . . . .pectore Aen. 1, 44. 

imis stagna refusa vadis Aen. 1, 126. 

aethere summo 1, 223. umeris . . . suspenderat Aen. 1, 318. 

complexu . . . coUoque pependit Aen. 1, 715. 

collo intendunt Aen. 2, 236. intenta . . . remis Aen. 5, 136. 

conjuncta crepidine 10, 6, 53. Maia genitum Aen. 1, 297. 

Nate dea Aen. 1, 582; 1, 615. satum quo Aen. 2, 540. 

Hammone satus Aen. 4, 198. satus Anchisa Aen. 5, 244; 5, 424. 

XXXVm. Anastropbe. 

Aram qnin etiam Ger. 3. Ultro quin etiam Agr. 26. 

paucos quippe an. 16, 17. rebus turbidus pro tempore ut an. 12, 49. 

hortorum magnificentia quasi an. 14, 52. 

compendiis . . . cum an. 1, 63. Classem quippe an. 2, 15. 

Loadicenis ac magnetibus simul an. 4, 55. 

sed inter epulas principis si an. 14, 3. erat quippe an. 2, 33. 

Subit quippe Agr. 3. acribus namque an. 1, 56. 

divisa namque an. 2, 43. vanescante quamquam an. 5, 9. 

mira quamquam an. 6, 30. redditi quamquam an. 14, 21. 

frueretur immo an. 11, 30. statueretur an. 12, 6. 

quaedam immo an. 15, 21. impudentia dum an. 14, 5. 

hortos quin etiam an. 15, 39. litora contra an. 3, 1. 

judice ab immo an. 3, 10. omatum ad urbis Ger. 3, 72. 

inito ab an. 4, 5. patriam coram obtestor an. 4, 8. 



— 51 — 

hostem propter an. 4, 48. viam miseni propter an. 14, 9. 
viam propter an. 15, 47. ripam an. 6, 37; 12, 11; 12, 51. 
paucos inter an. 11, 10. rostra juxta an. 12, 21. 
Tiberio abusque an. 13, 47. misenum inter an. 14, 4. 
seque coram an. 1, 11). urbem extra an. 13, 47. 
humum infra an. 11, 20. Scythias inter an. 6, 41. 
praetiiram intra an. 3, 75. Tiberim juxta an. 2, 41. 
lucem intra an. 4, 48. hostem propter an. 4, 48. 
humum super an. 16, 35. Caesaris juxta an. 13, 15. 
Torsam inter an. 4, 50. Amunclanum inter an. 4, 59. 
tectum inter an. 4, 69. partem in aliam an. 11, 3. 
lacu in ipso an. 12, 56. Noctemque intra unum an. 11, 36. 
inito ab Suriae an. 4, 5. ripam apud Euphratis an. 6, 31. 
oppido a Canopo an. 2, 60. Montem apud Erycum an. 4, 43. 
sedes inter vestalium an. 4, 16. Ferentino in oppido an. 15, 53. 
Lupiam amnes inter an. 1, 60. disque et patria Coram an. 4, 8. 

XXXrX. Anastrophe in Vergil. 

"The preposition, especially if dissyllabic, frequently follows 
its noun in poetry; iu prose this use is confined to certain 
prepositions and certain combinations. A preposition having 
two or more objects is sometimes set between them." 

Maria omnia circum Aen. 1, 32. Pergama circum Aen. 1, 466. 

litus harenosum ad Aen. 4, 257. 

spemque metumque inter Aen. 1, 218. 

Quos inter medios Aen. 1, 348. 

Scyllam atque Charybdim inter Aen. 3, 685. 

et sedibus haeret in isdem Aen. 2, 654. 

volat aequora juxta Aen. 4, 255. Altaria juxta Aen. 4, 517. 

hos juxta falso Aen. 6, 430. quem juxta Aen. 6, 815. 

Conjunctions: longius et volens Aen. 1^ 262. 

cemere ne quis posset Aen. 1, 413. 

vina bonus quae deinde Aen. 1, 195. quae deinde Aen. 3, 609. 

qui deinde Aen. 5, 258. patriae nee Aen. 2, 159. 

aemula necdum Aen. 5, 415. fecissentque utinam Aen. 2, 110. 

mansissetque utinam Aen. 3, 615. cuperem cum Aen. 5, 810. 

cervam licet Aen. 6, 802. non me impia namque Aen. 5, 733. 

quantus Aen. 12, 702. quando Aen. 6, 50; 10, 366. 

quia 8, 650. sed Aen. 1, 353. Ceu Aen. 2, 355. 



— 52 — 

XL. Adjectives for Adverbs. 

Adjectives are used very often by Tacitus, as well 
as by the poets, after the manner of the Greeks, for ad- 
verbs, when greater power is thereby given to the dis- 
course. 

domum German ici revivescere occulti lactabantur an. 4, 12. 

Si citi advenisset an. 12, 12. 

Aufert marito .... adeo properus an. 5, 1. 

a se suisque orsus primam domum suam coercuit Ag. 19. 

adversum luxum, qui immensum proruperat an. 3, 52. 

Tiberius torvus aut falsum renidens vultu an. 4, 60. 

innocentem Cornutum et falsa exterritum an. 4, 28. 

quod ni frequens modo Agr. 37. 

quam frequens contionibus H. 4, 69. frequens secretus an. 4, 3. 
adesse frequens an. 4, 55. in laboribus frequens adesse an. 13, 35. 

rari gladiis utuntur G. 6. rarus in tribunali an. 2, 57. 

rarus obtrectator an. 4, 33. rarus per urbem an. 14, 56. 

non jam obscuri suadentes Agr. 42. 

Multus in agmine Agr. 20. subitus irrupit H. 3, 47. 

progressi et repentinis hostibus an. 15, 4. 

Avidus intercepit Agr. 22. diversi interpretabantur an. 2, 73. 

Sis Dacus Germanusque diversi inrupissent H. 3, 46. 

pergit properus an. 6, 44. 

properique et singulis inferentur an. 16, 11. 

dum adversam fortunam aequus tolerat an. 5, 8. 
ut vulgus inprovidum inriti stabimus H. 3, 20. 
inritusque discesserit ille an. 1, 59. 
ne inriti dissuaderent an. 14, 7. 
cupido gloriae novissima exuitur H. 4, 6. 
adeoque improvisi castra involvere H. 4, 33. 
mox alios ac praecipuum an. 11, 14. 
intrepid! transiere an. 2, 8. 

XLI. Adjectives for Adverbs in Vergil. 

Adversus Aen. 1, 103; 2, 416; 6, 684. Alpini 4, 442. 
Alter 6, 713. alternus 3, 423; 5, 584; 11, 426. 
altus 1, 209; 6, 9. Anticus 1, 12. Castus 3, 409; 6, 402. 
Certus 5, 2; 9, 96. dexter 2, 388; 5, 162; 6, 541. 
dispersus 10, 406. diversus 2, 298; 5, 166; 9, 416. 



— 53 — 

extremus 4, 179. ferus 4, 466. gratissima 2, 2G9. 

gravis 5, 178; 5, 387; 5, 447. imus 10, 785. inanis 4, 44i). 

infensus 2, 72. ingens 3, 62. largior 6, 640. 

medius 1, 348; 4, 61; 4, 204. multus 2, 397. 

nocturnus 4, 303: 4, 490; 6, 252. nullus 4, 232. 

oblicus 5, 274. omnis 1, 180. par 5, 580. 

plurimus 1, 419; 12, 690. praepes 5, 254. 

primus 1, 613; 1, 737; 5, 66. rapidus 1, 644. 

secretus 4, 494; 8, 610. serus 5, 524. splendidus 1, 637. 

subitus 3, 225. sublimis 1, 415; 6, 720; 1, 259. 

tertius 3, 645. turbidus 9, 57. vanus 1, 392. verus 2, 78. 

violentus 6, 356. volatile 8, 694. 

XLII. Substantives for Adjectives. 
Spectator populus H. 3, 83. domus regnatrix an. 1, 4. 
corruptor animus an. 3, 54. bellator equus G. 14. 
regnator deus G. 39, 10. imperator populus an. 3, 6. 
mare Hadria an. 15, 34. H. 3, 42. mare oceanus an. 4, 12. 
Sidus cometes an 14, 22; 15, 47. 
promenturium Misenum an. 14, 4. 

vetus oppidum Puteoli an. 14, 27. Jovi liberatori an. 15, 64. 
victor rex an. 11, 17. victor equitatus H. 3, 18. 
victores exercitus H. 4, 57. 
quem (exercitum) incruentum et victorem an. 12, 17. 

XLIII. The following are from Vergil. 

Anus sacerdos Aen. 7, 419. 

regina sacerdos Aen. 1, 273. 

lupi .... raptores Aen. 2, 355. bellator equus G. 2, 145. 

XLIV. The use of the preposition ex for adjectives and adverbs. 

A mode of expression which has been used by the poets, 

generally after the manner of the Greeks. 

ex honesto an. 3, 55, 53. ex integro H. 3, 59. 
ex facile Agric. 15. H. 3, 49. 
ex adfluente H. 1, 57. 

ex aequo Agr. 20. G. 36. H. 4, 64; 2, 77, 97. an. 13, 2; 
15, 13. 

On like principle, 
in arte an. 4, 32; 3, 13. 



— 54 — 

in aperto an. 3, 56; 4, 4. Agr. 1, 33. 

in levi an. 3, 54. H. 2, 21. 

in neutrum H. 3, 32. 

in mollius an. 3, 12; 3, 44; 4, 23. 

in deterius an. 2, 82; 13, 43; 14, 43; 12, 64; 13, 14; 1, 62; 

3, 10. H. 4, 68; 2, 52; 3, 13; 4, 50. 
in mains an. 15, 30; 4, 23. 

in incertum an. 1, 11. in speciem an. 1, 52; 2, 6. 
in vnlgus an. 1, 28. in confesso D. 25, 27. 
in integro H. 3, 2. in incerto H. 1, 37. an. 3, 84. 
in ambiguo an. 2, 45. 
in agmen et numerum an. 15, 71. 
in spem an. 14, 63. H, 4, 42. 
in incertum et ambiguum an. 1, 11. 
in lacrimas an. 1, 57. in saevitiam an. 15, 44. 
in mortem an. 4, 45. 

per iram Agr. 38. H. 5, 15; 3, 22. an. 3, 84; 2, 68. 
per silentium an. 14, 10; 16, 25. H. 2, 74. Agr. 3. an. 2, 

38; 4, 53; 11, 37. 
per licentiam H. 3, 19; 4, 22; 2, 12. an. 3, 13. 
per acies an. 1, 1. 
per speciem an. 4, 8; 5, 8; 6, 50; 11, 1; 12, 13; 12, 41; 16, 

18; 4, 54; 1, 34. H. 1, 24; 1, 71; 4, 57; 5, 12. 
per nomen an. 1, 17; 13, 9. per omnem Agr. 4. 
per honesta an. 1, 75. 

per otium G. 15. an. 1, 31; 13, 54. H. 3, 78; 5, 10. 
magnas per opes an. 6, 22. per nimiam fiduciam Agr. 37. 
per intervalla Agr. 44. 

per lamenta ac maerorem Agr. 29. acies per cuneos Gr. 6. 
per cohortes et manipulos H. 4, 78. 
per catervas an. 2, 45. 
per ludibrium an. 1, 20; 2, 17. 

per ferociam an. 1, 20; 2, 17. per superbiam an. 1, 61. 
per ambitionem Agr. 40. 



XLV. Vergi]. 

in abrumptum Aen. 3, 422; 12, 687. in praeceps 6, 578. 
in numerum 8, 453. per lunam 2, 340. 
per umbram 2, 420. per mutua 7, 66. 



— 55 — 

XL VI. The following prepositions are rare and in no 
earlier prose. 

Adusque an. 15, 58. Ov. Met. 4, 20. Hor. Sat. bk. 1, 97; 

bk. 1, 596. Verg. Aen. 11, 262. 
abusque an. 13, 47; 15, 37. Verg. Aen. 7, 289. 

"The adverbial use of neuter adjectives is extended from 
the more regular (as multum, nimium, summum etc.) to more 
distinctly poetical usages." 

Aeternum an. 3, 26: 12, 28. Verg. Aen. 6, 401; 11, 98. 
immensum an. 3, 30; 3, 52; 4, 27; 4, 40; 6, 37. Verg. 
supremum H. 4, 14. Verg. Aen. 3, 68. 
praeceps an. 4, 62; 6, 17. Verg. Geo. 1, 203. Aen. 6, 578. 
recens H. 1, 77; 4, 68; 4, 83. an. 2, 21; 4, 5; 4, 62; 4,69; 

6, 2; 6, 10; 11, 25; 12, 18; 12, 27; 12, 63; 14, 31; 

15, 27; 15, 26, 51. Verg. Geo. 3, 156. 

XLVn. Qui relative where quis = quibus. 
dative: 
quis aliqua pars et cura rei publicae H. 1, 50. 
quis singula milia inessent H. 2, 93. 

quis vetus obsequium ergra Romanes .... patientior H. 3, 5, 
quis nee amor necque odium in partes H. 4, 31. 
quis flagitii conscientia inerat H. 4, 41. 
quis fausta nomina H. 4, 53. 
quis vel ex longe pace .... amor H. 5, 16. 
quis impugnandus agger an. 2, 20. 
quis Cotys traderetur an. 2, 66. quis idonea aetas an. 2, 85. 

quis velocissimos addiderat an. 3, 21. 

quis etiam reges obtemperarent an. 3, 26. 

quis ob infantiam tutor erat an. 3, 38. 

quis praecipium fuit rerum an. 4, 14. 

quis maxime fidebant an. 4, 56. 

quis additus miles nuntios an. 4, 67, 20. 

quis ingentium beluarum feraces saltus an. 4, 72. 

quis nulla ex honesta spes an. 5, 3. 

quis neque boni intellectus an. 6, 36. 

quis ob accusatam an. 12, 9. 

quis Caelius Pollio praefectus an. 12, 45. 

quis a claudio impositus an. 13, 14. 



- 56 — 

ablative: 
quis multos antierat H. 4, 7. quis legatus lapis H. 4, 53. 
quis flagrantem retineret H. 4, 68. 
quis temere antea intutis consederat H. 4, 75. 
quis solis corrumpantur H. 4, 76. quis caelestis favor H. 4, 81. 
quis res mortalis reguntur H. 5, 4. 
quis vel plana satis munerentur H. 5, 11. 
quis templum ambibatur H. 5, 12. 
quis viam Appiam .... operiret an. 2, 30. 
quis creditur animas .... sacrari an. 2, 69. 
quis amicitiam ei renuntiabat an. 2, 70. 
quis pace et principe uterentur an. 3, 28. 
quis domus ilia immensum viguit an. 3, 30. 
quis pecunia prodigitur an. 3, 52. 
quis lapidum causa . . . transferuntur an. 3, 53. 
quis Servias Galba rerum adeptus est an. 3, 55. 
quis potestatem tribuniciam Druso petebat an. 3, 52. 
quis multo cum honore modus tamen praescribebatur an. 3, 63» 

quis abesse taedia agitari an. 4, 41. 

quis per occultum lacerabatur an. 4, 42. 
quis commotus incusavit an. 6, 13. 

quis secundum jussa componerent an. 6, 16. 

quis prime .... quasi .... fuit an. 6, 24. 

quis incusabat an. 6, 27. quis permitti orabant an. 11, 10.. 

quis subactus miles an. 11, 20. 

quis fatentibus circumstrepunt an. 11, 31. 

quis per eos . . . incesserant an. 14, 21. 

in quis Agr. 37, 26. H. 1, 88, 6. H. 3, 77, 11. H. 4, 71,. 

27. H. 5, 3, 16. H. 5, 19, 12. H. 5, 21, 3. an. 

1, 25, 8; 2, 8, 3, 10; 12, 28, 9. 
a quis H. 4, 25, 11. an. 1, 57, 2. 
ex quis an. 1, 18, 11; 1, 77, 12; 3, 55, 3; 3, 74, 3; 4, 16, 4; 

4, 32, 12; 5, 6, 2; 6, 2, 9; 6, 14, 2; 11, 38, 13; 

12, 14, 5; 12, 56, 10; 14, 5, 4; 14, 42, 9. 
cum quis 12, 28, 6. 

XLVm. Vergil, 
quis ante ora patrum Aen. 1, 95. 

quis bella gerendo Aen. 7, 444. quis Juppiter Aen. 7, 799. 
quis fortuna negarat Aen. 10, 435. quis innexa Aen. 5, 511.. 



— 57 — 

XLIX. Quamquam with the Subjunctive. 

quamquam depulisset an. 2, 1. 

quamquam . . . permulsisset an. 2, 34. 

quamquam esset an. 1, 3. quamquam pervenirent an. 3, 55. 

quamquam monuisset an. 4, 67. 

quamquam . . . elaborentur D. 6. 

quamquam .... disputes D. 15. quamquam natus sit D. 21. 

quamquam . . . habeat D. 26. 

quamquam .... sequerentur D. 34. 

quamquam .... miscuerit Agr. 3. 

quamquam .... esset Agr. 6. 

quamquam . . . potitus sit Agr. 13. 

quamquam metuerint G. 28. 

quamquam . . consederint G. 29. 

quamquam incipiat G. 35. quamquam vocentur G. 38. 

quamquam .... adissent H, 1. 

quamquam .... veheretur H. 2, 5. 

quamquam .... tenderet H. 3, 10. 

quamquam .... tradiderint H. 3, 22. 

quamquam . . promitterent H. 3, 59. 

quamquam .... sequeretur H. 3, 82. 

quamquam evassisset H. 5, 21. 

quamquam esset an. 1, 3. 

quamquam . . . legeretur an. 2, 48. 

quamquam .... abruisset an. 2, 78. 

quamquam .... abstinerent an. 2, 82. 

quamquam . . . censuissent an. 3, 11. 

quamquam . . . censuissent an. 3, 23. 

quamquam .... foret an. 3, 24. 

quamquam . . . pervenirent an. 3, 55. 

quamquam .... sit an. 4, 4. quamquam abruerent an. 4, 17. 

quamquam .... damnasset an. 4, 42. 

quamquam .... suaderet an. 4, 59. 

quamquam .... monuisset an. 4, 67. 

quamquam cecidissent an. 4, 78. 

quamquam . . . transierit an. 6, 51. 
quamquam .... offunderentur an. 11, 20. 

quamquam reciperavissent an. 11, 22. 

quamquam pollerent an. 11, 24. 

quamquam .... eximerent an. 11, 32. 



— 58 — 

quamquam . . . vocaretur an. 12, 14. 
quamquam . , . praeferret an. 13, 3. 
quamquam censuissent an. 13, 10. 
quamquam confideret an. 14, 36. 
quamquam .... saepsisset an. 15, 57. 

Quamquam essent Ver. Aen. 6, 494. 

L. Metonymy and Abstract for Concrete Terms. 

auxilia = auxiliares copiae A. 18. H. 1, 26; 2, 4. an. 

13, 38. 
Vigiliae = excubiae an. 1, 32. H. 3, 69. an. 13, 55. 
militia = milites H. 3, 18. 
matrimonia = conjuges an. 2, 13. 
conjugium = uxor an. 11, 34; 4, 3; 14, 27; 15, 37. 
necessitudines = propinqui H. 1, 15; 3, 59. 
adfinitas = adfines A. 44. an. 11, 24. 
amicitiae = amici A. 44. H. 1, 10; 2, 87. an. 4, 40; 5, 2. 
dominationes = regna an. 3, 6; 6, 42. 
nobilitates = nobilitas an. 12, 20. 
remigium = remi G. 44. H. 3, 47. an. 2, 6; 12, 56. 
clientelae = clientes an. 12, 36; 13, 37; 14, 61. 
servitium = servitus an. 1, 23; 12, 17. 
exilium = locus exilii H. 4, 44. an. 13, 55. in places, exiles, 

H. 1, 2. 

f de rebus et institutis antiquis D. 30. an. 2, 59; 
antiquitas | 12, 61. 

I antiqui an. 15, 13; 3, 4. 
consultationes = consilium G. 10. an. 4, 40. 
consultationes = postulationes an. 16, 14. H. 2, 4. 
ingenia = felix cogitatio an. 12, 66; 14, 3; 15, 42. H. 3, 38. 
delectus = copiae conscriptae H. 4, 71. 
consilia = consultores an. 4, 40. 
jura = licentiae an. 3, 60. 
liberalitas =^ donum an. 2, 37. 
origo = majores an. 4, 9. 
originem = auctores G. 2. 
regna = reges an. 3, 55. 
vitae usus = decori homines an. 4, 30. 
verbere = rare singular form (poetical) an. 5, 9. 
concentus = clamatio G. 3. 



— 59 — 

gloria frontis = cornua G. 5. 

pressi curra = pressi jugo G. 10. 

Venus = concubitus G. 20. 

pubertas = facultas generandi G. 20. 

pretia = praemia G. 20, 

magno corpore = rei publicae magnitudine G. 39. 

nomeu = gens G. 43. 

superstitionis = religionis G. 43. 

subbilitatem = calliditatem A. 9. 

patientia := obsevantia A. 16. 

numeri = cohortes or manipuli A. 18. 

annos = annonam A. 31. 

aegra := aversa A. 32. 

terra editum = indigena G. 2. 

satis ^= segetibus G. 5. 

mortali opere = hominum opera G. 10. 

habitus = vestitus G. 17. 

aetate ^= juventa G. 19. 

puerperium = partus an. 12, 6; 15, 23. 

atteri = vinci Agr. 9. 

multus = frequens Agr. 20. 

secreti = deserti G. 38. 

maioribus = illustrioribus G. 40. 

officio = salutatione G. 40. 

militares viri = duces G. 41. 

visus = species G. 45. 

artibus = mores H. 1, 10. 

dubiis = periculis H. 1, 28. 

vexillis = manipulis H. 1, 36. 

sine more = inaudita H. 1, 38. cf. Aen. 7, 377. 

abruptus = praeceps H. 1, 48. cf. Aen. 2, 460. 

modestia = disciplina H. 1, 60. 

intenti = alacres H. 1, 62. cf. Aen. 4, 138. 

tutulus = leges H. 1, 71. 

dirimitur = dividitur H. 1, 76. cf. Aen. 7, 226. 

otium = muneris functo H. 1, 82. 

constematis := eruptis H. 1, 83. 

fugientibus = progredientibus G. 33. 

exsequi = punire Agr. 19. 

misceri = contendere H. 1, 38. cf. Verg. Geo. 1, 360. 

expediam = exponam H. 1, 51. 



— 60 — 

magnificas = magniloquas H. 1, 74. 

latum = copiosum H. 1, 90. 

adolentur = immolare H. 2, 3. cf. Aen. 7, 71. 

gliscentem = crescentem H. 2, 8. 

expositos = objectos H. 2, 30. 

summa modestia = acri disciplina H. 2, 87. 

natalibus = genere or origine H. 2, 86. 

adductus = serverius H. 3, 6. 

interiectus = obvius H. 3, 8. 

ciens =^ appelans H. 3, 10. 

vernile = servi H. 3, 32. 

consuleret = paceret H. 3, 82. ■ 

exhausisset = egisset H. 4, 33. 

miscendo = communicando H. 4, 41. 

hiatu = cupiditate H. 4, 42. 

absurda = aliena H. 4, 48. 

sublati = elati H. 4, 63. cf. Aen. 10, 502. 

civitatis = urbis H. 4, 63. 

occulomm tabe = caecitate H. 4, 81. 

auctoribus = scriptoribus H. 4, 83. 

trahebant = interpretabantur H. 5, 13. 

pondus == onus D. 1. 

fabulas = sermones D. 2. 

oficii = honoris D. 6. 

vates = poeta D. 9. 

opinio = fama D. 10. 

cothurnum = tragoedia D. 10. 

quatenus ;= quoniam D. 19. cf. D. 5. 

intineribus = via D. 19. 

exprimere = imitare D. 20. 

eloquentia = stylu D. 23. 

sensuum = sententiarum D. 23. 

altitudinem = sublimitatem D. 31. 

rubore = pudore D. 36. 

finis = mors an. 6, 25. 

lubricam = vacillantem or periculosam an. 13, 2. 

ferociam = superbam an. 13, 2. 

vanitas = mendacium an. 13, 23. 

gravis = obnoxia an. 13, 23. 

curriculo = currui an. 14, 14. 

vanitate = supestitione an. 14, 22. 



- 61 - 

vacuum = apertum an. 14, 28. 

puella = uxor juvenis an. 14, 64. cf. Hor. Od. 3, 22, 2. 

vapore = calore an. 11, 3; 15, 43. 

integris =: non certis an. 15, 25. 

miscuere = junxere an. 15, 28. 

complexu = occulo an. 15, 30. 

vagis =: variis an. 15, 54. cf. Aen. 6, 160. 

vanitatem = credulitatem an. 16, 1. 

Metonymy is common in all speech, but is used with 
special force and effectiveness in poetr}'. It may be con- 
sidered that Tacitus felt this. His love for variety also led 
him, we may believe, to a vigorous use of the abstract for 
the concrete. 

LI. Personification. 

The boldness of the figures in implied or expressed per- 
sonification found in Tacitus is striking; so much so that they 
are prima facie of poetical spirit and content. 

intrepida hiems Agr. 22. 

bellum aperuit G. 1. 

virtus agnoscit G. 22. 

sepulcrum caespes erigit G. 27. 

prava .... agit G. 44. 

circumsteterat . . . exspectatis H. 1, 17. 

multa seditionis ora vocesque an. 1, 31. 

vestigia morientis libertatis an. 1, 74. 

ipsum . fluere an. 1, 79. 

eductae . . . hostes an. 12, 16. 

lacrimas .... revocat an. 15, 62. 

nox . . . obsequia H. 1, 80. 

(H. 3, 39. H, 2, 62. strepentibus .... intieribus.) 

strepere provinciae H. 2, 84. 

noctem minacem an. 1, 28. 

nox tulit an. 2, 14. 

nox . . . conjunxit an. 13, 17. 

annus aperuit Ag. 22. an. 1, 54; 4, 14; 4, 15; 6, 45. 

Tiber an. 1, 79. lux an. 1, 70. 

dies an. 14, 41. consulatus D. 36. 

eloquentia D. 37. 



— 62 — 

LII. Metaphors. 

The following metaphors are worthy of attention on account, 
of the poetical boldness of expression. 

excindere hostem an. 12, 39. H. 5, 16. cf. Verg. Aen. 9, 137. 
eruendae civitates H. 4, 72. urbem eruit Verg. Aen. 2, 611. 

!v^PT*(T A pn ^ 
11 7 • * 1 ' 
■ \ 

exercitus flamaverat H. 2, 74. 

pugionem . . . asperari saxo et in mucronem f 15, 54. Lucan 
ardescere jussit I 7, 139. 

acerrimam bello facem praetulit H. 2, 86. 

abruptis vitae blandimentis H. 2, 53. 
abruptis voluptatibus H. 4, 64. < 

pacem abnimpere 



Aen. 3, 55. 
nee somnos abrumpit 
Geo. 3, 530. 



fas gentium nipistis an. 1, 42. 

rupturi imperium H. 3, 19. 

servitium alioram rupit an. 14, 49. 

rupta voce an. 6, 20. 

miscere coetus an. 1, 16. 

mixtus consiliis H. 2, 7. 

miscere ictus Agr. 36. 

dexteras miscuere an. 15, 28. 

pericula sua miscere an. 16, 34. 

futura Tokens an. 1, 64. 1 Volvens fatorum arcana Aen. 1, 262. 

bellum . . . volverat an. 3, 38.?Multa volvens Verg. G. 2, 295. 

bellum . . . volebat H. 1, 64.J fama volat Verg. Aen. 8, 121. 

asperantem tumentem H. 3, 31. 

vox .... intumescat G. 3. 

intumere statim superbia ferociaque H. 4, 19. 

intumescente motu an. 1, 38. 

, , . 1 ^1 f Verg. Aen. 10, 648. animo spem. 

hauserunt ammo an. 1, ol. < f ■,.-, , .^ • 

I turbidus hausit m amem. 

si aliquando obumbrentur H. 2, 32. 

maesta fama = tristis fama H. 2, 46. 

I Verg. Aen. 6, 304. 
cruda ac viridis senectus Agr. 29. | cruda deo vividisque 

[ senectus. 



— 63 — 



ubere agri II. 3, 34. Verg. Aen. 1, 531 

ubere glaebae. 
infamibus .... locis H. 2, 93. 
nova labonim fades H. 3, 30. | 
locorum facies an. 14, 10. \ 
in faciem pacis an. 13, 38. j 
locoram fraude an. 12, 33. | 
furtim noctis Agr. 34. j 

annus := annus proventus Agr. 31. G. 14. 
vulnera derigere H. 2, 35. Verg. Aen. 10, 140. 

(ictus) derigere. 



potens armis atque 

cf. Hor. Od. 1, 3, 20. 

Verg. Aen. 6, 104. nova 
facies; facies = species. 

Verg. Aen. 9, 397. fraude 
loci et noctis. 

vulnera 




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